Tip #5: Deal with Infections
Source: World Health Organisation
Infectious agents are responsible for almost 22% of cancer deaths in the developing world and 6% in industrialized
countries. Viral hepatitis B and C cause cancer of the liver; human papilloma virus infection causes cervical cancer;
the bacterium Helicobacter pylori increases the risk of stomach cancer.
In some countries the parasitic infection schistosomiasis increases the risk of bladder cancer and in other countries the liver fluke increases the risk of cholangiocarcinoma of the bile ducts. Preventive measures include vaccination and prevention of infection and infestation.
Candida albicans and cancer
The most common ´parasite´ in the Western World is Candida albicans, a common fungus. 70 – 80 per cent of people have excesses of it. Yellow toe nails, flatulence after meals, thrush, cystitis – these are all signs of candida excess.
The major reason is that we allow our intestinal flora to become imbalanced. We kill off the helpful bacteria – the ones we have lived in harmony with for thousands of years – with antibiotiocs, chlorinated water, drugs, salt, alcohol etc. And we don´t feed them their favourite foods – whole grains, vegetables, fruits, fibre.
But, at night while you sleep, your good bacteria would consume vast quantities of microbes, fungus and yeasts that you consumed with your food during the day; so ´cleaning´ your system for you.
If you cannot deal with your excesses of the fungus candida albicans, they can produce toxins which pervade the blood system. People may feel like they have a hangover when they ate or drank something ´yeasty´. Worse they can punch holes in the gut wall with their roots (think IBS) and even enter the blood stream from the gut. Research then shows they can sit on and block cell receptor sites normally reserved for important hormones. This blocking effect is known to occur in some cases of type 2 Diabetes. In 25 per cent of cases cinnamon relieved the symptoms of the disease – but then, cinnamon kills candida in the blood system.
Interestingly, there is research showing that women who take 25 doses of antibiotics in their lifetime have twice the breast cancer risk.
Yeasts and fungal infections like candida are anaerobic – they do not use oxygen to generate their energy. An acid body is a pleasant home for candida, a poorly nourished one too, as is one with a low immune response. Once in the blood system, candida can colonise areas of the body. The presence of thousands of yeast cells reduces oxygen levels in those areas. But your body cells are clever. If they cannot take in enough oxygen, they can generate energy without it. Just as a cancer cell does!
Worse, some cancer treatments can severely increase levels of candida in the body. In cases of leukaemia, the treatment itself, because of its severity, can produce fatal excesses.
In 1993 a top US medical magazine wrote that “People on chemotherapy finally succunmbed, not to their cancer, but due to an excess of candida albicans.”
Dr Simoncini from Italy believes all cancers are caused by a fungus and he has developed a protocol for treating cancer using Bicarbonate of Soda.
This is covered in the list of Treatment Options on this website.
Dr Simoncini’s website is: http://www.curenaturalicancro.com
“Cancer patients undergoing radio or chemotherapy did not finally succumb to the cancer itself, but to an infestation of candida albicans.”
Contemporary Oncology Magazine
Source: The website of the National Cancer Institute (www.cancer.gov)
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacterium that is found in the stomach of about two-thirds of the world’s population.
- H. pylori infection is a major cause of gastric (stomach) cancer and is associated with an increased risk of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.
- H. pylori infection may be associated with a decreased risk of some other cancers, including esophageal adenocarcinoma.
What is Helicobacter pylori?
Helicobacter pylori, or H. pylori, is a spiral-shaped bacterium that grows in the mucus layer that coats the inside of the human stomach.
To survive in the harsh, acidic environment of the stomach, H. pylori secretes an enzyme called urease, which converts the chemical urea to ammonia. The production of ammonia around H. pylori neutralizes the acidity of the stomach, making it more hospitable for the bacterium. In addition, the helical shape of H. pylori allows it to burrow into the mucus layer, which is less acidic than the inside space, or lumen, of the stomach. H. pylori can also attach to the cells that line the inner surface of the stomach.
Although immune cells that normally recognize and attack invading bacteria accumulate near sites of H. pylori infection, they are unable to reach the stomach lining. In addition, H. pylori has developed ways of interfering with local immune responses, making them ineffective in eliminating the bacteria (1, 2).
H. pylori has coexisted with humans for many thousands of years and infection with the bacterium is common. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that approximately two-thirds of the world’s population harbors the bacterium, with infection rates much higher in developing countries than in developed nations.
Although H. pylori infection does not cause illness in most infected people, it is a major risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and is responsible for the majority of ulcers of the stomach and upper small intestine. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases has more information about H. pylori and peptic ulcer disease.
In 1994, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified H. pylori as a carcinogen, or cancer-causing agent, in humans, despite conflicting results at the time. Since then, colonization of the stomach with H. pylori has been increasingly accepted as an important cause of stomach cancer and of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (see Questions 2–7). Infection with the bacteria is also associated with a reduced risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (see Questions 6–8).
Spread of H. pylori is thought to occur through contaminated food and water or through direct mouth-to-mouth contact. In most populations, the bacterium is first acquired during childhood. Children living in crowded conditions and with a lower socioeconomic status are more likely to become infected.
What is genital HPV infection?
Genital human papillomavirus (also called HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are more than 40 types of HPV that can infect the genital areas of males and females. These HPV types can also infect the mouth and throat.
HPV can cause serious health problems, including genital warts and certain cancers. There is no certain way to tell who will develop health problems from HPV and who will not. In most cases HPV goes away by itself before it causes any health problems, and most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it.
Who is at risk for HPV?
Anyone who is having (or has ever had) sex can get HPV. HPV is so common that nearly all sexually-active men and women get it at some point in their lives. This is true even for people who only have sex with one person in their lifetime.
How do people get HPV?
HPV is passed on through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. HPV may also be passed on during oral sex and genital-to-genital contact. HPV can be passed on between straight and same-sex partners—even when the infected person has no signs or symptoms.
Most infected persons do not realize they are infected, or that they are passing HPV on to a sex partner. A person can still have HPV, even if years have passed since he or she has had sexual contact with an infected person. It is also possible to get more than one type of HPV.
In rare circumstances, a pregnant woman with genital HPV can pass the HPV on to her baby during delivery. Learn more about HPV Infection
Gardasil Victims and their stories
Source: My Gardasil Story
Gardasil (and Cervarix and Silgard) are vaccinations marketed as a way to help prevent cervical cancer. We are told that Gardasil is saving girls all over the world from cervical cancer. We are also now being told that Gardasil will also prevent genital warts in males.
What we are not being told is that all across the globe, young women are having horrific side effects to Gardasil. Just a very few of the reactions include: limb pain, paralysis, chronic fatigue, heart complications, dizziness, anxiety, hair loss, hallucinations, insomnia, cardiac issues, auto-immune diseases, migraines, loss of vision, back aches, sensitivity to light, ceasing of menstruction and even death.
These once young, vibrant, healthy women now suffer silently in pain, as there is no known medical treatment to help them. They are the silent victims which the medical industry rarely acknowledge. In cases where Dr’s have admitted the connection, they still have no way to help them.
If you are considering the Gardasil (or other HPV vaccines) for your daughter, son or even yourself, please read the stories of the women on our site. We ask you to please take the time to research, read, learn and then listen to your own heart when making a decision about Gardasil. You can never ‘unvaccinate’.. continue reading at My Gardasil Story
Europe investigating after reports of side-effects from some cervical cancer vaccines
The HPV vaccine for cervical cancer is being investigated by the European Commission.
The commission has requested that the European Medicines Agency examine reports of possible side-effects arising from some cervical cancer vaccines.
MEP Mairead McGuinness says there have been reports of some young women in Ireland and other EU countries suffering from painful and heart related symptoms after being given the vaccine.
Ms McGuinness said she hopes a report into the issue is completed as soon as possible.
She said: “What will emerge from the investigation is a bringing together of all of the reported cases particularly around the two medical conditions – one in relation to the heart issue and the other to severe pain syndrome.
“I think there will be clarity after this investigation.
“I regret to say that I don’t know how long this will take, but I do hope that we get answers sooner rather than later.”
What is hepatitis?
“Hepatitis” means inflammation of the liver. The liver is a vital organ that processes nutrients, filters the blood, and fights infections. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Hepatitis is most often caused by a virus. In the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can also cause hepatitis.
What is Hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop an “acute” infection, which can range in severity from a very mild illness with few or no symptoms to a serious condition requiring hospitalization. Acute Hepatitis B refers to the first 6 months after someone is exposed to the Hepatitis B virus. Some people are able to fight the infection and clear the virus. For others, the infection remains and leads to a “chronic,” or lifelong, illness. Chronic Hepatitis B refers to the illness that occurs when the Hepatitis B virus remains in a person’s body. Over time, the infection can cause serious health problems.
Is Hepatitis B common?
Yes. In the United States, approximately 1.2 million people have chronic Hepatitis B.
Unfortunately, many people do not know they are infected. The number of new cases of Hepatitis B has decreased more than 80% over the last 20 years. An estimated 40,000 people now become infected each year. Many experts believe this decline is a result of widespread vaccination of children.
How is Hepatitis B spread?
Hepatitis B is usually spread when blood, semen, or other body fluids from a person infected with the Hepatitis B virus enter the body of someone who is not infected. This can happen through sexual contact with an infected person or sharing needles, syringes, or other injection drug equipment. Hepatitis B can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby at birth.Hepatitis B is not spread through breastfeeding, sharing eating utensils, hugging, kissing, holding hands, coughing, or sneezing. Unlike some forms of hepatitis, Hepatitis B is also not spread by contaminated food or water.
Can Hepatitis B be spread through sex?
Yes. In the United States, Hepatitis B is most commonly spread through sexual contact. The Hepatitis B virus is 50–100 times more infectious than HIV and can be passed through the exchange of body fluids, such as semen, vaginal fluids, and blood.
What are the symptoms of acute Hepatitis B?
Not everyone has symptoms with acute Hepatitis B, especially young children. Most adults have symptoms that appear within 3 months of exposure. Symptoms can last from a few weeks to several months and include:
- Loss of appetite
- Abdominal pain
- Grey-colored stools
- Dark urine
- Joint pain
What are the symptoms of chronic Hepatitis B?
Many people with chronic Hepatitis B do not have symptoms and do not know they are infected. Even though a person has no symptoms, the virus can still be detected in the blood. Symptoms of chronic Hepatitis B can take up to 30 years to develop. Damage to the liver can silently occur during this time. When symptoms do appear, they are similar to acute infection and can be a sign of advanced liver disease
How serious is Hepatitis B?
Over time, approximately 15%–25% of people with chronic Hepatitis B develop serious liver problems, including liver damage, cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer. Every year, approximately 3,000 people in the United States and more than 600,000 people worldwide die from Hepatitis B-related liver disease.
How is Hepatitis B diagnosed and treated?
Hepatitis B is diagnosed with specific blood tests that are not part of blood work typically done during regular physical exams. For acute Hepatitis B, doctors usually recommend rest, adequate nutrition, fluids, and close medical monitoring. Some people may need to be hospitalized. Those living with chronic Hepatitis B should be evaluated for liver problems and monitored on a regular basis. Even though a person may not have symptoms or feel sick, damage to the liver can still occur. Several new treatments are available that can significantly improve health and delay or reverse the effects of liver disease.
Can Hepatitis B be prevented?
Yes. The best way to prevent Hepatitis B is by getting vaccinated. For adults, the Hepatitis B vaccine is given as a series of 3 shots over a period of 6 months. The entire series is needed for long-term protection. Booster doses are not currently recommended.
What is Hepatitis C?
Hepatitis C is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. When first infected, a person can develop an “acute” infection, which can range in severity from a very mild illness with few or no symptoms to a serious condition requiring hospitalization.
Acute Hepatitis C is a short-term illness that occurs within the first 6 months after someone is exposed to the Hepatitis C virus. For reasons that are not known, 15%–25% of people “clear” the virus without treatment. Approximately 75%–85% of people who become infected with the Hepatitis C virus develop “chronic,” or lifelong, infection.
Chronic Hepatitis C is a long-term illness that occurs when the Hepatitis C virus remains in a person’s body. Over time, it can lead to serious liver problems, including liver damage, cirrhosis, liver failure, or liver cancer
How is Hepatitis C spread?
Hepatitis C is usually spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. Today, most people become infected with Hepatitis C by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. Before widespread screening of the blood supply began in 1992, Hepatitis C was also commonly spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants. Although uncommon, outbreaks of Hepatitis C have occurred from blood contamination in medical settings.
Can Hepatitis C be spread through sex?
Yes, although scientists do not know how frequently this occurs. Having a sexually transmitted disease or HIV, sex with multiple partners, or rough sex appears to increase a person’s risk for Hepatitis C. There also appears to be an increased risk for sexual transmission of Hepatitis C among gay men who are HIV-positive.
Can a person get Hepatitis C from a tattoo or piercing?
There is little evidence that Hepatitis C is spread by getting tattoos in licensed, commercial facilities. Whenever tattoos or body piercings are given in informal settings or with non-sterile instruments, transmission of Hepatitis C and other infectious diseases is possible.
How common is Hepatitis C?
An estimated 3.2 million people in the United States have chronic Hepatitis C. Most are unaware of their infection. Each year, about 17,000 Americans become infected with Hepatitis C.
How serious is Hepatitis C?
Chronic Hepatitis C is a serious disease that can result in long-term health problems, including liver damage, liver failure, and liver cancer. Approximately 12,000 people die every year from Hepatitis C-related liver disease.
What are the symptoms of Hepatitis C?
Many people with Hepatitis C do not have symptoms and do not know they are infected. Even though a person has no symptoms, the virus can still be detected in the blood. If symptoms occur with acute infection, they can appear anytime from 2 weeks to 6 months after exposure. Symptoms of chronic Hepatitis C can take up to 30 years to develop. Damage to the liver can silently occur during this time. When symptoms do appear, they often are a sign of advanced liver disease. Symptoms for both acute and chronic Hepatitis C can include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, grey-colored stools, joint pain, and jaundice.
How is Hepatitis C diagnosed?
Doctors can diagnose Hepatitis C using specific blood tests that are not part of blood work typically done during regular physical exams. Typically, a person first gets a screening test that looks for “antibodies” to the Hepatitis C virus. Antibodies are chemicals released into the bloodstream when a person becomes infected. The antibodies remain in the bloodstream, even if the person clears the virus. If the screening test is positive for Hepatitis C antibodies, different blood tests are needed to determine whether the infection has been cleared or has become a chronic infection.
Who should get tested for Hepatitis C?
Testing for Hepatitis C is recommended for certain groups, including people who:
- Currently inject drugs
- Injected drugs in the past, even if it was just once or occurred many years ago
- Have HIV infection
- Have abnormal liver tests or liver disease
- Received donated blood or organs before 1992
- Have been exposed to blood on the job through a needlestick or injury with a sharp object
- Are on hemodialysis
Source: The website of the National Cancer Institute (www.cancer.gov)
- People infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a higher risk of some types of cancer than uninfected people (see Question 1).
- A weakened immune system caused by infection with HIV, infection with other viruses, and traditional risk factors such as smoking all contribute to this higher cancer risk (see Question 2).
- Highly active antiretroviral therapy and lifestyle changes may reduce the risk of some types of cancer in people infected with HIV (see Questions 3 and 4 ).
- The National Cancer Institute (NCI) conducts and supports a number of research programs aimed at understanding, preventing, and treating HIV infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related cancers, and cancer-associated viral diseases (see Question 5).
1. Do people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of cancer?
Yes. People infected with HIV have a substantially higher risk of some types of cancer compared with uninfected people of the same age (1). Three of these cancers are known as “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining cancers” or “AIDS-defining malignancies”: Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer. A diagnosis of any one of these cancers marks the point at which HIV infection has progressed to AIDS.
People infected with HIV are several thousand times more likely than uninfected people to be diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma, at least 70 times more likely to be diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and, among women, at least 5 times more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer (1).
In addition, people infected with HIV are at higher risk of several other types of cancer (1). These other malignancies include anal, liver, and lung cancer, and Hodgkin lymphoma.
People infected with HIV are at least 25 times more likely to be diagnosed with anal cancer than uninfected people, 5 times as likely to be diagnosed with liver cancer, 3 times as likely to be diagnosed with lung cancer, and at least 10 times more likely to be diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma (1).
People infected with HIV do not have increased risks of breast, colorectal, prostate, or many other common types of cancer (1). Screening for these cancers in HIV-infected people should follow current guidelines for the general population.
2. Why do people infected with HIV have a higher risk of cancer?
Infection with HIV weakens the immune system and reduces the body’s ability to fight infections that may lead to cancer (2, 3). Many people infected with HIV are also infected with other viruses that cause certain cancers (2–8). The following are the most important of these cancer-related viruses:
- Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the cause of Kaposi sarcoma.
- Epstein Barr virus (EBV) causes some subtypes of non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma.
- Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and some types of anal, penile, vaginal, vulvar, and head and neck cancer.
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) both can cause liver cancer.
Infection with most of these viruses is more common among people infected with HIV than among uninfected people.
In addition, the prevalence of some traditional risk factors for cancer, especially smoking (a known cause of lung cancer) and heavy alcohol use (which can increase the risk of liver cancer), is higher among people infected with HIV (2, 7).
3. Has the introduction of antiretroviral therapy changed the cancer risk of people infected with HIV?
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid-1990s greatly reduced the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma among people infected with HIV (2, 5). HAART lowers the amount of HIV circulating in the blood, thereby allowing partial restoration of immune system function.
Although lower than before, the risk of these two cancers is still much higher among people infected with HIV than among people in the general population. This persistently high risk may be due, at least in part, to the fact that immune system function remains substantially impaired in people treated with HAART. In addition, over time HIV can develop resistance to the drugs used in HAART. Many people infected with HIV have had difficulty in accessing medical care or taking their medication as prescribed (5).
Although HAART has led to reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma among HIV-infected individuals, it has not reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, which has essentially remained unchanged (2, 5, 6). Moreover, the incidence of several other cancers, particularly Hodgkin lymphoma and anal cancer, has been increasing among HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of HAART (5, 6, 9). The influence of HAART on the risk of these other cancer types is not well understood.
As HAART has reduced the number of deaths from AIDS, the HIV-infected population has grown in size and become older. The fastest growing proportion of HIV-infected individuals is the over-40 age group. These individuals are now developing cancers common in older age. In 2003, the proportion of these other cancers exceeded the number of AIDS-defining malignancies (6). However, HIV-infected people do not develop most cancers at a younger age than is typically seen in the general population (10, 11).
4. What can people infected with HIV do to reduce their risk of cancer or to find cancer early?
Taking HAART as indicated based on current HIV treatment guidelines lowers the risk of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and increases overall survival.
The risk of lung cancer can be reduced by quitting smoking. Because HIV-infected people have a higher risk of lung cancer, it is especially important that they do not smoke. Help with quitting smoking is available through the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) smoking quitline at 1–877–448–7848 (1–877–44U–QUIT) and in other NCI resources.
The higher incidence of liver cancer among HIV-infected people appears to be related to more frequent infection with hepatitis virus (particularly HCV) and alcohol abuse or dependence than among uninfected people (7, 13). Therefore, HIV-infected individuals should know their hepatitis status. If blood tests show that they have previously been infected with HBV or HCV, they should consider reducing their alcohol consumption.
In addition, if they currently have viral hepatitis, they should discuss with their health care provider whether HBV- or HCV-suppressing therapy is an option for them (13, 14). Some drugs may be used for both HBV-suppressing therapy and HAART (13).
Because HIV-infected women have a higher risk of cervical cancer, it is important that they be screened regularly for this disease. Studies have suggested that Pap test abnormalities are more common among HIV-infected women and that HPV DNA tests may not be as effective as Pap tests in screening these women for cervical cancer (12, 15).
Some researchers recommend anal Pap test screening to detect and treat early lesions before they progress to anal cancer (16). This type of screening may be most beneficial for men who have had sexual intercourse with other men. HIV-infected patients should discuss such screening with their medical providers.
1. Grulich AE, van Leeuwen MT, Falster MO, Vajdic CM. Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2007; 370(9581):59–67. [PubMed Abstract]
2. Engels EA, Biggar RJ, Hall HI, et al. Cancer risk in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus in the United States. International Journal of Cancer 2008; 123(1):187–194. [PubMed Abstract]
3. Powles T, Macdonald D, Nelson M, Stebbing J. Hepatocellular cancer in HIV-infected individuals: tomorrow’s problem? Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 2006; 6(11):1553–1558. [PubMed Abstract]
4. Angeletti PC, Zhang L, Wood C. The viral etiology of AIDS-associated malignancies. Advances in Pharmacology 2008; 56:509–557. [PubMed Abstract]
5. Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Goedert JJ, et al. Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980–2002. AIDS 2006; 20(12):1645–1654. [PubMed Abstract]
6. Chaturvedi AK, Madeleine MM, Biggar RJ, Engels EA. Risk of human papillomavirus-associated cancers among persons with AIDS. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2009; 101(16):1120–1130. [PubMed Abstract]
7. Silverberg MJ, Abrams DI. AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies: cancer occurrence in the antiretroviral therapy era. Current Opinion in Oncology 2007; 19(5):446–451. [PubMed Abstract]
8. Grogg KL, Miller RF, Dogan A. HIV infection and lymphoma. Journal of Clinical Pathology 2007; 60(12):1365–1372. [PubMed Abstract]
9. Simard EP, Pfeiffer RM, Engels EA. Spectrum of cancer risk late after AIDS onset in the United States. Archives of Internal Medicine 2010; 170(15):1337–1345. [PubMed Abstract]
10. Shiels MS, Pfeiffer RM, Engels EA. Age at cancer diagnosis among persons with AIDS in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine 2010; 153(7):452–460. [PubMed Abstract]
11. Spano JP, Costagliola D, Katlama C, et al. AIDS-related malignancies: state of the art and therapeutic challenges. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2008; 26(29):4834–4842. [PubMed Abstract]
12. Heard I. Prevention of cervical cancer in women with HIV. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS 2009; 4(1):68–73. [PubMed Abstract]
13. Macdonald DC, Nelson M, Bower M, Powles T. Hepatocellular carcinoma, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in the HAART era. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2008; 14(11):1657–1663. [PubMed Abstract]
14. McGinnis KA, Fultz SL, Skanderson M, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: the roles of HIV, hepatitis C infection, and alcohol abuse. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2006; 24(31):5005–5009. [PubMed Abstract]
15. Massad LS, Seaberg EC, Wright RL, et al. Squamous cervical lesions in women with human immunodeficiency virus: long-term follow-up. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2008; 111(6):1388–1393. [PubMed Abstract]
16. Goldie SJ, Kuntz KM, Weinstein MC, et al. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in homosexual and bisexual HIV-positive men. Journal of the American Medical Association 1999; 281(19):1822–1829. [PubMed Abstract]
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