Stop cancer metastasis and prolong survival
Cancer Stem Cells and Metastasis
Around 90% of cancer deaths are as a result of metastasis (cancer spreading to other organs).
Cancer stem cells are suspected to be the cause of most – if not all – metastases.
What are Cancer stem cells?
This type of stem cell represents a small proportion of the types of cell found in a tumour, and can replicate tumour cells, causing tumours to grow and spread. Cancer stem cells are considered resistant to drug and radiotherapy treatments, and therefore can be left behind after the course of cancer treatment comes to an end, allowing the tumour to regrow and spread around the body.
Source: Cardiff University
The Stem Cell Theory of Cancer
… many new anti-cancer therapies are evaluated based on their ability to shrink tumors, but if the therapies are not killing the cancer stem cells, the tumor will soon grow back (often with a vexing resistance to the previously used therapy). An analogy would be a weeding technique that is evaluated based on how low it can chop the weed stalks—but no matter how low the weeks are cut, if the roots aren’t taken out, the weeds will just grow back.
Source: Stanford Medicine
Food and Cancer Stem Cells
This scientific review says natural products, including those found in common foodstuffs have demonstrated the ability to modulate pathways responsible for Cancer Stem Cells function and inhibition.
The following have been scientifically proven to help cancer patients:
|Physical Exercise||Prolongs Survival|
|Daily Sunshine (Vitamin D)||Kills Cancer Stem Cells & Prolongs Survival|
|FOOD & BEVERAGES||PROVEN BENEFIT|
|Some of the active anti-cancer ingredients found in the Foods and Beverages listed below.|
Vitamin D, B-carotine, Curcumin, Resveratrol, Genistein, Quercetin, Sulforaphane, Lycopene, Piperine, Indole-3-Carbinol, Gingerols, Falcarinol and falcarindiol, Ursolic acid, Anthocyanins, Apigenin, EGCG, Salvestrols, Capsiacin, G Grifolin, Cordycepin,
Leafy green vegetables, cabbage, brussels sprouts, broccoli,
cauliflower, carrots, peas, onions, tomatoes, radishes, purple potatoes,
sweet potatoes. soybeans and soy protein, doc leaves (raw)
|Kills Cancer Stem Cells|
See also: Broccoli Sprouts Extract ( Supplements section)
|Reduces Metastasis &|
Kills Cancer Stem Cells
|Red/purple cabbage, purple corn, red radish, red onion, black bean.||Inhibits Tumor Growth|
Berries, blueberries, bilberries, grapes, plums, watermelon, papaya,
pink grapefruit, apples, cranberries.
|Kills Cancer Stem Cells |
|Bilberry, elderberries, red-skinned grapes, black olives||Inhibits Tumor Growth|
|Papaya black seeds||Reduces Metastasis|
|Herbs, Spices and Seeds|
Turmeric, ginger, parsley, thyme, chamomile, red and black peppers,
basil, peppermint, elderflower, lovage (sea parsley), capers.
|Kills Cancer Stem Cells and Inhibits Tumor growth|
|Kills Cancer Stem Cells|
|Kombucha||Inhibits Tumor Growth|
|Vitamin C (Intravenous high dose)||Prolongs Survival & Kills Cancer Stem Cells|
|Avemar (fermented wheat germ extract)||Reduces Metastasis & Prolongs Survival|
|AHCC (a natural immune-modulating compound)||Prolongs Survival|
|Beta Glucans (sugars found in bacteria, fungi, yeasts)||Prolongs Survival|
|Naringenin (The predominant flavanone in grapefruit)||Reduces Metastasis|
|Polysaccharide Krestin (PSK) (mushroom extract)||Reduces Metastasis|
|MSKE (grape extract)||Reduces Metastasis|
|Honokiol (Magnolia Bark Extract)||Reduces Metastasis|
|Bee Propolis (containing Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE))||Kills Cancer Stem Cells|
|Ashwagandha||Kills Cancer Stem Cells|
|Silibinin (Milk Thistle seed extract)||Kills Cancer Stem Cells|
|Berberine||Kills Cancer Stem Cells|
|Vitamin E (Tocotrienols from Annotto)||Prolongs Survival|
|Feverfew and Green chirayta (Andrographis Paniculata)||Kills Cancer Stem Cells|
|Melatonin (hormonal supplement)||Prolongs Survival|
|Naringenin (found in citrus fruits)||Inhibits Tumor Growth|
|Hesperiden (found in citrus fruits)||Inhibits Tumor Growth|
|Orasal (Salicinium) [a plant based extract taken orally or by IV]||Inhibits Tumor Growth|
|Broccoli Sprouts Extract||Inhibits Tumor Growth & Prolongs Survival|
|Tian Xian (extract of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs)||Inhibits Tumor Growth &|
|Bovine cartilege||Inhibits Tumor Growth|
|Dr Rath Cellular Solution||Inhibits Tumor Growth &|
|Nigella Sativa||Inhibits Tumor Growth &|
|Graviola (Annona muricata)||Inhibits Tumor Growth &|
|Paw Paw Cell-Reg||Reduces Metastasis & Prolongs Survival|
|Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy||Inhibits Tumor Growth|
|Sonodynamic and Photodynamic Therapy Combined||Prolongs Survival|
|PHARMACEUTICAL DRUGS||PROVEN BENEFIT|
|Metformin (diabetes drug) (Alternative: Berberine)||Prolongs survival|
|Beta-blockers||Reduces Metastasis & Prolongs survival|
|Artemisinin (Anti-Malaria drug)||Prolongs survival|
|Itraconazole (an antifungal medication)||Prolongs survival|
|Tecentriq (cancer treatment drug)||Prolongs survival|
|Opdivo (cancer treatment drug)||Prolongs survival|
|Ukrain (cancer treatment drug)||Inhibits Tumor Growth & Prolongs survival|
|Niclosamide (tapeworm treatment) ( not to be taken with Fenbendazole)||Reduces Metastasis|
|Chloroquine (malaria drug)||Reduces Metastasis|
|Bisphosphonates (used to slow down bone damage)||Reduces Metastasis|
|Taurolidine (A synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic)||Reduces Metastasis & Inhibits Tumor Growth|
|Dipyridamole (an anticoagulant)||Reduces Metastasis|
|Metformin (diabetes drug)||Kills Cancer Stem Cells|
|Stiripentol (epilepsy drug)||Kills Cancer Stem Cells|
|Salinomycin (antibiotic drug)||Kills Cancer Stem Cells|
|Niclosamide (tapeworm treatment)||Kills Cancer Stem Cells|
|Artemesinin (Malaria treatment)||Inhibits Tumor Growth|
|Mifepristone (abortion pill)||Reduces Metastasis & Inhibits Tumor Growth|
|UKRAIN||Prolongs survival & Inhibits Tumor Growth|
|Statins (Alternative: Lycopene)||Prolongs survival|
|Cesium Chloride (an inorganic compound)||Prolongs Survival|
|Sodium Dichloroacetate (a salt of sodium and dichloroacetatic acid)||Prolongs Survival|
|Sodium Bicarbonate (baking powder)||Reduces Metastasis|
|Hydrazine Sulfate||Prolongs Survival|
Inositol Hexaphosphate (IP6) and Inositol
|Inhibits Tumor Growth|
Anvirzel (Oleander extract)
Here is scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of all the items listed above.
Exercise and improved survival
This systematic review of a number of studies involving 68,000 cancer patients found that superior levels of exercise following a cancer diagnosis were associated with a
28%–44% reduced risk of cancer-specific mortality,
21%–35% lower risk of cancer recurrence,
25%–48% decreased risk of all-cause mortality.
In prostate cancer controlling high blood fat levels is essential. Exercise reduces aggressive and fatal prostate cancer, and increases survival according to a number of research studies.
See more details at Physical Exercise
Sunshine (Vitamin D)
This study reviewed 10 Random Controlled Trials with 79,055 patients. It concluded: Our study highlights that the use of Vitamin D supplementation for primary prevention of cancer is important as it does decrease cancer-related mortality once cancer is diagnosed…
This study says: Vitamin D and its analogs have inhibitory effects on cancer stem cell signaling in various types of human cancer cells and may be promising therapeutic/preventive agents against Cancer Stem Cells.
This Review Article says: Vitamin D affects several cellular mechanisms such as inhibiting differentiation, proliferation, metastasis and invasion, angiogenesis, inducing cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis…
See Vitamin D
Vitamin C (Intravenous high dose)
This Study of 100 “untreatable” terminal cancer patients who were given supplemental ascorbate, usually 10 g/day and 1000 matched controls, similar patients who had received the same treatment except for the ascorbate, found:
The ascorbate-treated patients were found to have a mean survival time about 300 days greater than that of the controls. Survival times greater than 1 yr after the date of untreatability were observed for 22% of the ascorbate-treated patients and for 0.4% of the controls. The mean survival time of these 22 ascorbate-treated patients is 2.4 yr after reaching the apparently terminal stage; 8 of the ascorbate-treated patients are still alive, with a mean survival time after untreatability of 3.5 yr.
This study revealed that Vitamin C treatment dramatically reduced the self-renewal ability, and percentages of Cancer Stem Cells in Liver cancer.
See Vitamin C
AHCC (a natural immune-modulating compound)
A study was performed from February 1, 1992 to December 31, 2001. A total of 269 patients with histologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma were studied. All of the patients underwent resection of a liver tumor. Time to treatment failure (disease recurrence or death) and ten parameters related to liver function after surgery were examined.
Of the 269 patients, 113 received AHCC orally after undergoing curative surgery (AHCC group). The AHCC group had a significantly longer no recurrence period …and an increased overall survival rate when compared to the control group… This study suggests that AHCC intake can improve the prognosis of postoperative HCC patients.
This study included all 54,406 women with Breast Cancer [BC] diagnosed in Sweden 2000 through 2008. It concluded:
This population based registry study shows that women treated with second generation antihistamines have a better overall and BC specific survival compared with non users regardless of age, history of allergy, ER status and tumor stage. The results are strongest for desloratadine use and use after BC diagnosis. Second generation antihistamines could offer a nontoxic therapy for both receptor positive and negative BC.
There is some concern that the antihistamine Cimetidine has estrogenic properties. If you have a certain type of breast cancer or prostate cancer, for example, this may be a concern.
Anthocyanins are natural plant pigments found in berries and red-skinned grapes, apples, pears and vegetables such as red/purple cabbage. They are also available in supplement form.
Baked purple-fleshed potato suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in colon cancer stem cells, says this study.
This Review says studies found anthocyanins affect the proliferation of cancer cells, inhibiting of the ability of cancer cells to divide uncontrollably, the induction of apoptosis, the process of angiogenesis where tumors form new blood vessels, and the cancer cells invasion through healthy tissue.
Artemesinin (Anti-Malaria drug)
This study involving 23 patients tested the anti-Colorectal Cancer properties of oral artesunate (a derivative of Artemisinin). Patients planned for curative surgery were randomised to receive either 14 daily doses of oral artesunate or placebo. During a median follow up of 42 months, there were 6 recurrences in the placebo group and 1 recurrence in an artesunate recipient. The survival beyond 2 years in the artesunate group is estimated at 91% whilst surviving the first recurrence in the placebo group is only 57%.
This study revealed experimental evidences suggesting that artemisinin compounds may be a therapeutic alternative in highly aggressive cancers with rapid dissemination, without developing drug resistance.
Anvirzel (Oleander extract)
This 2014 study presented case reports of 9 metastatic cancer patients who received the extract Nerium oleander. Cases included 4 colon cancer patients, 3 pancreatic cancer patients (1 neuroendocrine and 2 adenocarcinoma), 1 renal cell carcinoma and 1 lung cancer patient…The renal cell patient experienced tumor regression for 12 months with the extract alone; the 3 pancreatic cancer patients and a colon cancer patient experienced disease stabilization. Survival times were extended for all patients with survival times ranging from 32 months to 11 years for these patients with metastatic disease.
Anvirzel seems to be the first cancer remedy to show positive results for leiomyosarcoma, probably the deadliest of cancers. Anvirzel also crosses the blood-brain barrier and gives hope to people with brain tumors.
Apigenin and quercetin, can reduce the self-renewal capacity of Glioblastoma stem-like cells. These findings underscore the therapeutic potential of the flavonoids to suppress Glioblastoma metastasis by regulating the migration and invasion of Glioblastoma Stem Cells, according to this study
Apigenin is found in parsley, thyme, chamomile and red peppers.
Ashwagandha (Withaferin A)
The herbal supplement Withaferin A significantly inhibited the tumorigenic potential of isolated cancer stem cells in vitro and significantly reduced its expression in tumors collected from mice, according to this Study
This study says Withaferin A induces cell death (apoptosis/necrosis) in multiple types of tumor cells.
An article in Oncology Times reported on a study involving 3,193 patients:
Regular aspirin use after diagnosis of prostate cancer is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer mortality and metastases, according to new data from the large observational Physicians’ Health Study (1982-2009) reported at the 2016 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium (Abstract 306).
With 27 years of follow-up on 22,071 male physicians enrolled in the study, 3,193 had been diagnosed with prostate cancer. Of those, 403 developed metastatic disease or died from prostate cancer, said Christopher Brian Allard, MD… the study’s first author.
“Among men with prostate cancer, regular aspirin use after diagnosis was associated with a 39 percent decreased risk of dying from prostate cancer,”
Study: According to the collected data presented here, astaxanthin treatment is an effective method of reducing the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Astaxanthin has shown demonstrated a consistent ability to reduce multiple types of cancer. These findings have the potential to incite many different types of medical research that could affect modern-day cancer treatment.
[Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment found in Pacific salmon, trout, microalgae, and shrimp, among other sea creatures.]
Avemar is an all-natural, clinically proven, dietary supplement for cancer patients. Medical experts recognize Avemar as an effective supportive cancer treatment and recommend complementing the diet of concerned patients with Avemar.
This study reporting on 170 patients with colorectal cancer says the results showed significantly enhanced survival and reduced metastases formation in the Avemar treated group even though the prognostic factors of the patients were worse in this arm.
In another prospective randomized study, 42 stage III melanoma patients participated after radical removal of the primary tumors and the regional lymph-node metastases. Following 4 courses of DTIC treatment, patients were randomly allocated to either receiving 1 yr treatment of Avemar (19 patients) or just observation (23 patients)… after a 7-yr-long follow-up period of the treated patients, log-rank analysis still showed significant differences in favor of Avemar group regarding both progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
Bee Propolis (containing Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE))
The authors of this study showed that CAPE inhibits the growth of breast cancer stem cells and potentially makes them more susceptible to chemotherapeutic agents when used in combination.
The authors of this study say their results strongly suggest that CAPE could be a powerful inhibitor of cancer stem cell growth and functions that are responsible for CSC-mediated recurrence of breast cancer and increased patient mortality.
This scientific review says that recent studies indicate that CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester ) treatment can effectively suppress the proliferation, survival, and metastasis of oral cancer cells… CAPE treatment will be useful for treatment of advanced oral cancer patients.
Berberine is an alkaloid isolated from the roots and bark of Berberis plants and is available as a supplement.
This study showed the anti-cancer stem cell effect of berberine on oral cancer.
This study retrospectively reviewed 722 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received radiotherapy concluded:
…the incidental use of beta-blockers in this group of patients with NSCLC was associated with improved distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival…
This study says: Propranolol was also shown to have an effect on metastasis to the brain – the other major site of interest in breast cancer.
This meta-analysis provides evidence that beta blocker use can be associated with the prolonged survival of cancer patients, especially patients with early-stage cancer treated primarily with surgery.
This study concluded…we observed reduced cancer-specific mortality among prostate cancer patients taking beta-blockers.
β-carotene was shown to strongly increase the anticancer efficacy against neuroblastoma cancer stem-like cells. Moreover, these results suggest that the targeting of cancer stem cells is a novel mechanism of β-carotene. Thus, β-carotene is a potential chemotherapeutic reagent for this cancer. In conclusion, the present study revealed that BC [B-carotine] exhibits excellent anti-CSC [cancer stem cell] qualities, says this study
The results in human studies where β-carotene has been measured show that it is strongly associated with the consumption of green and yellow vegetables, says this study.
What are Beta Glutans?
A substance found in bacteria, plants, and certain foods, such as cereal grains and mushrooms. Beta-glucan may stimulate the immune system and help kill cancer cells. Source: National Cancer Institute
This study says b–Glucan shows anticarcinogenic activity, prevent oncogenesis and prevent metastasis.
This study says these mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides that can increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function… beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth in promotion stage too.
See Beta Glucans page
This article in The Lancet referenced a meta-analysis of randomised trials of bisphosphonates involving 18,766 women over a 20 year period. In postmenopausal women, the addition of bisphosphonates resulted in highly significant reductions for bone recurrence (6·6% vs 8·8%) and for breast cancer mortality (14·7% vs 18·0%) at 10 years…There was no reduction in the incidence of contralateral breast cancer or in the risk of metastasis to non‐osseous [consisting of or turned into bone] sites. This landmark report on breast cancer treatment should lead to widespread adoption of bisphosphonates as a standard of care for the adjuvant therapy of early-stage breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
Some of the mechanisms by which blueberries have been shown to prevent carcinogenesis include inhibition of the production of pro-inflammatory molecules, oxidative stress and products of oxidative stress such as DNA damage, inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, says this study.
This study involving 31 patients states: Oral and subcutaneous administration of specific preparations of bovine tracheal cartilage rings (Catrix), a nontoxic agent, has resulted in a high response rate in 31 cases of a variety of clinical malignancies (response rate 90%, 61% complete). The demonstrated responders include present therapeutic disasters such as glioblastoma multiforme and cancers of the pancreas and lung. Other types which were treated with success included cancers of the ovary, rectum, prostate, cervix, thyroid, and an inoperable squamous cancer of the nose. These responses were observed when full dose therapy was given over prolonged courses of treatment (years).
See more at Bovine Cartilege page
Broccoli Sprout Extract
In this study of 239 patients … intake of raw cruciferous vegetables was significantly associated with reduced disease-specific (57% reduction) and overall mortality (43% reduction), a result largely driven by raw broccoli intake. The reduction was observed with consumption of at least one serving raw broccoli per month (average intake 3.9 servings/month), indicating the feasibility of this type of diet intervention strategy.
This study found that broccoli sprout consumption slowed prostate cancer formation and decreased cancer severity…
Note: Broccoli sprouts are 100 times better at providing sulforaphane than the mature broccoli.
Broccoli Sprouts Juice is available in Ireland from Vegus Juices
See Broccoli Sprout Extract
Capsiacin (Cayenne Pepper)
This study review says: Capsaicin exhibits strong anticancer activity through targeting multiple signaling pathways and cancer-associated genes in different tumor stages including initiation, promotion, progression and metastasis. Overall, the anticancer mechanisms of capsaicin include activation of apoptosis, cell-growth arrest and inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. Capsaicin stimulates the anti-tumorigenic/tumor-suppressive signaling pathway and related transcription factors, whereas it inhibits oncogenic signaling pathways and tumor promoters. In addition, capsaicin interacts with other cancer-preventive agents synergistically, providing the possibility for the potential use of capsaicin in cancer therapy with other chemotherapeutic agents.
Carotenoids are pigments that produce the bright yellow, red, and orange colors in plants, vegetables, and fruits.
Study: Observational studies strongly evidenced that carotenoids possess potential anti-metastasis actions.
The data presented in this review suggest that carotenoids may hit cancer cells by targeting multiple molecular signaling pathways…Marine carotenoids have attained considerable attention in this review that they are reported to possess comparatively potent anti-cancer effects over terrestrial carotenoids.
This study reports on 50 patients treated with Cesium. An impressive 50% recovered from various cancers, i.e., cancer of unknown primary, breast, colon, prostate, pancrease, lung, liver, lymphoma, ewing sarcoma of the pelvis and adeno-cancer of the gallbladder. A consistent finding in these patients was the disappearance of pain within the initial 3 days of Cs-treatment.
This study warns:
Cesium chloride, which is used as alternative therapy by some cancer patients, has been determined to have significant adverse effects, especially cardiovascular effects.
See Cesium Chloride
Chloroquine, a drug currently used to treat malaria, may be useful in treating patients with metastatic cancers according to a new study by University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center.
Study: Cordyceps is a genus of ascomycete fungi that has been used for traditional herbal remedies. It contains various bioactive ingredients including cordycepin…It is important to acknowledge that cordycepin not only exhibits proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells, but also inhibits cell metastasis in tumor cells, demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent in the larger scope of cancer.
Food sources: Turmeric
Curcumin has been shown to exhibit cytotoxic effects on Cancer Stem Cells and selectively targets Cancer Stem Cells in Esophageal squamous carcinoma according to this Study
Curcumin supplements provide curcumin in good amounts but curcumin is difficult to absorb and has a a very short half-life. This study shows absorption can be helped by piperine (a major component of black pepper), liposome-encapsulated curcumin and olive oil which contains substantial amounts of other compounds deemed to be anticancer agents.
Dipyridamole (an anticoagulant)
Anticoagulants may inhibit the adherence (or trapping) of cancer cells to capillary walls, so that cancer cells remain in systemic circulation and thus are exposed for a prolonged period to a hostile environment with the potential to eliminate cancer cells, according to this study.
This study concluded:…the present study provides further insights into the molecular mechanisms of dipyridamole action, showing its ability to inhibit triple-negative breast-cancer primary tumor growth and metastasis formation.
This study says: Therapy with RA-233, a dipyridamole analogue, leads to an increased overall survival in patients with localized NSCLC [non-small cell lung cancer].
In several studies, the simultaneous use of anti-histamines such as Tagamet (cimetidine) alongside Dipyridamole was shown to be important. There are numerous studies on histamines in the fight against cancer.
Dr. Matthias Rath Cellular Solution
Dr Rath’s website says: Although various natural substances such as vitamin C, green tea polyphenols and others have shown anti-cancer activity…they have to be used in very high doses which are possible only through intravenous delivery.
Our approach has been based on a synergy of individual components that allows for controlling multiple cancer mechanisms at once and achieving better physiological effects without using large doses of individual components.
We have developed a specific synergistic combination of nutrients that can inhibit invasion of cancer cells in the tissue and control other key mechanisms of cancer at the same time…Using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, we provided comprehensive scientific data that this nutrient synergy can:
1. Inhibit tumor growth and cancer metastasis
2. Inhibit angiogenesis
3. Induce natural cancer cell death (apoptosis)
4. Decrease inflammation
See Dr. Matthias Rath Cellular Solution
Falcarinol and falcarindiol
Polyacetylenes derived from carrot and parsley
The authors of this study say they provide several pieces of evidence suggesting that falcarindiol has the anticancer role by targeting glioblastoma cells, as well as glioblastoma stem-like cells. Falcarindiol was shown to selectively kill colorectal cancer cells and repress tumor growth, without affecting normal colon epithelial cells. The anticancer function of falcarindiol was further demonstrated with breast cancer cells in which falcarindiol contributed to autophagy-dependent tumor cell death.
This study says falcarindiol inhibits development of breast and other cancers.
Feverfew and Green chirayta (Andrographis Paniculata)
This review says “the compound parthenolide, which is derived from the medicinal plant feverfew, has recently been shown to preferentially induce acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) stem cells to undergo apoptosis. Importantly, parthenolide had no discernable effect on normal blood cells.”
This study shows that feverfew plant extract and Green chirayta plant extract are highly effective anti-myeloma cancer stem cell agents, with Green chirayta plant extract displaying increased selectivity for myeloma cancer stem cells compared to feverfew plant extract. The data presented here constitute the first report of natural products with anti-Cancer Stem Cell activity in myeloma cancer
Flaxseed and Breast Cancer
This study says:
Biomarker studies in breast cancer patients indicate increased tumor cell apoptosis, decreased HER-2 expression, decreased tumor cell proliferation, and anti-angiogenic activity in vivo at doses between 25 g ground flax or 50 mg SDG per day…Current evidence suggests that flax consumption may decrease risk of breast cancer development and may exert antitumor effects in women with breast cancer when used at doses of 25 g ground flaxseed or 50 mg SDG per day.
[SDG = Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, an antioxidant phytoestrogen present in flax seeds.]
Study: Grifolin, a natural product isolated from the mushroom Albatrellus confluens, has been reported to be a potent anti-cancer agent in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and osteosarcoma. The data obtained in this study revealed that grifolin is capable of inhibiting the growth and invasion of gastric cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and suppressing the ERK1/2 pathway. Our results support the potent utility of grifolin as an anti-tumor lead compound against gastric cancer cells.
Food sources: Soybeans and Soy protein
Inhibits ovarian cancer stem cells says this study
Food sources: Ginger
This study says growth arrest and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells treated with 6-gingerol, was shown to occur.
Gingerol has been purported to exert cancer chemopreventative effects by influencing various steps of the metastatic process…cells treated with 6-gingerol showed reduction in matrix metalloproteases MMP2 and MMP9 and pointed towards favorable response to the drug in processes involved in cell adhesion, migration, invasion and proliferation.
Green Tea (EGCG)
According to this study, numerous reports have shown the ability of EGCG to specifically modulate cancer stem cells in a variety of cancer types. EGCG inhibited colorectal cancer stem cells.
Graviola (Annona muricata)
Graviola is a tree prevalent in the rain forests of Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. The fruits, also known as soursop, are consumed as food…Graviola is also available as a dietary supplement and widely promoted as an alternative treatment for cancer…
This study says: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an oncogene frequently overexpressed in breast cancer (BC), and its overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance. EGFR is therefore a rational target for BC therapy development. This study demonstrated that a graviola fruit extract (GFE) significantly downregulated EGFR gene expression and inhibited the growth of BC cells and xenografts.
See Graviola page for more info
Hesperidin is a major dietary flavanone which is abundantly found in many citrus fruits like oranges and exhibits a wide range of biological properties. Hesperidin has been recognized as a potent anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-oxidant agent according to the data obtained from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies, according to this study
This study says Hesperidin has been proven to be an effective medicine possessing many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory…and inhibition of tumor promoters. Hesperidin has the potential to be developed as a chemotherapeutic or adjuvant agent for human cervical cancer.
Hesperidin, an important bioflavonoid, is widely found in Citrus species and acts as potent antioxidant and anticancer agent, says this study
An alternative approach to medicine based on the belief that natural substances, prepared in a special way and used most often in very small amounts, restore health.
In this randomized controlled trial, 410 patients, who were treated by standard anti-neoplastic therapy, were randomized to receive or not receive classical homeopathic adjunctive therapy in addition to standard therapy. The study took place at the Medical University Vienna, Department of Medicine I, Clinical Division of Oncology.
RESULTS: 373 patients yielded at least one of three measurements. The improvement of global health status between visits 1 and 3 was significantly stronger in the homeopathy group by 7.7 when compared with the control group. A significant group difference was also observed with respect to subjective wellbeing by 14.7 in favor of the homeopathic as compared with the control group. Control patients showed a significant improvement only in subjective wellbeing between their first and third visits.
Honokiol is a lignin isolated from the bark, seed cones, and leaves of the trees of various Magnolia species. Honokiol has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries.
This Review concluded:
For centuries, researchers have been searching for strategies to control cancer progression through different approaches. Honokiol is a potential natural compound that exerts multiple effects on different cellular processes in various cancer models. Honokiol has been shown to regulate cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, as well as the inhibition of metastasis and angiogenesis through various signalling pathways.
See Honokiol page for more details
Hydrazine Sulphate (Sehydrin)
In a series of 84 cancer patients treated with hydrazine sulfate it was found that 70% of the cases improved subjectively and 17 % improved objectively according to this study.
A substance that has been studied as a treatment for cancer and as a treatment for cachexia (body wasting) associated with advanced cancer – National Cancer Institute.
This study says: There is good evidence that hydrazine sulfate inhibits gluconeogenesis. Therefore, it may play a role in reducing the severity of cachexia and in improving the quality of life of cancer patients.
This study says: On the basis of observations available, Sehydrin may be assessed as an alternative drug for the treatment and symptomatic therapy of patients with some advanced solid tumours and malignant lymphomas at a disease stage when the other methods of treatment can not be used.
See Hydrazine Sulphate
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
Oxygen that is given at a pressure that is higher than the pressure of the atmosphere at sea level. In medicine, breathing hyperbaric oxygen increases the amount of oxygen in the body…It is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Hyperbaric oxygen may increase the amount of oxygen in cancer cells, which may make them easier to kill with radiation therapy and chemotherapy – National Cancer Institute
This review says: We included 19 trials in this review (2286 participants: 1103 allocated to HBOT and 1153 to control). For head and neck cancer, there was an overall reduction in the risk of dying at both one year and five years after therapy, and some evidence of improved local tumour control immediately following irradiation…There was a lower incidence of local recurrence of tumour when using HBOT at both one and five years … There was also some evidence with regard to the chance of metastasis at five years
The authors of this research paper say previous studies have shown that I3C inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and prevent or delay the progression of cancer, through its ability to attack cancer stem cells…
I3C has a widespread effect on multiple cancer cells, such as breast cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancers, according to this study. This demonstrates the I3C plays a significant role in either the cell cycle arrest or apoptosis of various cancers.
Food sources: vegetables such as cabbage, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, radishes, and broccoli. Also available as a Supplement
Inositol Hexaphosphate (IP6) and Inositol
A molecule present in mammalian cells and obtained from various dietary sources such as grains and legumes, Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is used to prevent and treat cancer.
This study says: A striking anticancer effect of IP6 was demonstrated in different experimental models. Inositol is also a natural constituent possessing moderate anticancer activity. The most consistent and best anticancer results were obtained from the combination of IP6 plus inositol. In addition to reducing cell proliferation, IP6 increases differentiation of malignant cells, often resulting in a reversion to normal phenotype…
According to a 2015 study Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO) – itraconazole as an anti-cancer agent : Clinical trials have shown that patients with prostate, lung, and basal cell carcinoma have benefited from treatment with itraconazole, and there are additional reports of activity in leukaemia, ovarian, breast, and pancreatic cancers.
The evidence presented…suggests that ITZ has a number of anti-cancer effects at clinically achievable doses, particularly in NSCLC, BCC, and prostate cancer. There is evidence that that it may also be applicable to a number of other cancers, including glioblastoma, breast, pancreatic, and ovarian. More generally, the main mechanisms of action investigated to date, antiangiogenic and Hedgehog inhibition, may serve to identify other cancer types where investigation with ITZ may be beneficial.
This study found kombucha induced cell growth inhibition by 20% in laboratory tests.
Food sources: Tomatoes, watermelon, papaya, pink grapefruit
In this review, the authors highlight the remarkable ability of phytochemicals to decrease the replicative capacity of Cancer Stem Cells…
This study says Lycopene has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell cycle progression in various cancer cells.
A combination of vitamin E, selenium, and lycopene has been shown to dramatically inhibit prostate cancer development and to increase disease-free survival. Lycopene has also been shown to suppress the growth of lung cancer cells, according to this study
This study included 250 metastatic solid tumour patients who were randomised to receive Melatonin (20 mg/day orally every day) plus chemotherapy, or chemotherapy alone.
The 1-year survival rate and the objective tumour regression rate were significantly higher in patients concomitantly treated with Melatonin than in those who received chemotherapy alone. The tumour response rate in chemo + melatonin group was 42 out of 124 patients versus 19 out of 126 in the chemo only group.
1-year survival: 63 out of 124 patients in the chemo + melatonin group versus 29 out of 126 patients in the chemo only group.
Metformin (type 2 diabetes drug)
This 2016 Review published in Annals of Oncology looked at data from observational studies comprising 24,178 participants. In those with early-stage colorectal cancer, metformin use was associated with a significant benefit in all outcomes.
For men with early-stage prostate cancer, metformin was associated with significant, or borderline significant, benefits in all outcomes. The data suggest that prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy may benefit more from metformin. In breast and urothelial cancer, no significant benefits were identified.
Mifepristone (abortion pill)
Long-term High-quality Survival
Case Report: We show long-term high-quality survival following single-agent treatment with a progesterone receptor antagonist in two cases of advanced metastatic cancer.
This study of 34 ovarian cancer patients treated with Mifepristone says:
Nine (26.5%) of these patients had a response to Mifepristone. Three(9%) patients had a complete response, and six (17.5%), a partial response. The response of one patient in each group was measured by CA-125 levels while the remainder had measurable disease. The response lasted 1 to 4 months in all but one patient. One patient continues to respond after more than 3 years. The major toxic effect was a rash and this was the major reason patients were removed from the study.
Conclusion: Mifepristone has activity against ovarian cancer resistant to cisplatin and paclitaxel. The drug is well tolerated.
MSKE (Muscadine grape skin extract)
This study says:
Here we provide the first evidence that dietary agents, namely, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, or a mixture of polyphenols from green tea (polyphenon E) or grapevine extract (vineatrol), impede prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo…
A modest amount of red wine per week enhances the immune system.
This study involved 10 healthy adults drinking two glasses of Merlot per week. The findings were:
This study showed that red wine consumption can significantly modulate the growth of select gut microbiota in humans, which suggests possible prebiotic benefits associated with the inclusion of red wine polyphenols in the diet…During the study we found that the regular intake of red wine polyphenols generated significant decreases in the plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol.
See more on Resveratrol and MSKE page
The results of this study suggest that Naringenin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in citrus fruits, has a potentially useful inhibitory effect on tumor growth.
This study says that naringenin inhibits bladder cancer cell migration and, thus, may have the potential to suppress bladder cancer metastasis.
Niclosamide (tapeworm treatment)
This study concluded:
…we have provided evidence that the antihelminthic niclosamide inhibits cancer stemness, extracellular matrix remodeling, and metastasis [in oral squamous cell carcinoma]
Nigella Sativa (Black Seeds)
Nigella sativa is a flowering plant found throughout India, Arabia, and Europe. Nigella sativa has been proven over and over again to successfully treat cancer without the use of conventional treatments. Nigella sativa has been shown to be effective against numerous cancers, such as pancreatic, colon, prostate, breast and even brain cancers.
This study says: Experimental findings and recent advances in the field highlight TQ as an effective therapeutic agent for the suppression of tumor development, growth and metastasis for a wide range of tumors. [Thymoquinone (TQ) is the bioactive phytochemical constituent of the seeds oil of Nigella sativa]
See Nigella Sativa page
Orasal (Trade Name Salicinium®)
This article says: Results from 675 cancer patients show that Salicinium effectively treats many different types of cancer, significantly extending survival for all groups studied (including a majority of patients with treatment-resistant Stage IV cancer).
Salicinium is a natural plant based extract, a complex sugar molecule that is harmless to normal cells in the body because they cannot absorb a “complex glycome”. Circulating tumor cells are at the forefront of an ongoing or escalading malignant process. Salicinium affects these cells first, therefore, contributing to halting the spread of malignancy – Reno Integrative Medical Center
Papaya black seeds
Papaya is a soft tropical fruit with a yellowish-orange color.
Carica papaya is an important and promising natural medicinal plant which could be utilized in several pharmaceutical and medical applications because of its effectiveness, availability and safety… Papaya promotes immune system. Papaya is a potent cancer fighter that is highly effective against hormone related to cancer as well as other cancer. Papaya can stop the growth of cancer cell, halt metastasis and normalize cell cycle, says this Review
This study concluded: The black seeds from papaya may have a potential to reduce growth of prostate cells; however, consumption of white seeds should be avoided as they may stimulate pre-existing prostate cancer.
Paw Paw Cell-Reg (PawPaw extract)
Pawpaw is a tropical tree native to regions of North America. The fruit of this tree is reputed to have anti-cancer properties.
This study of 94 patients says: James Forsythe, M.D., Director of the Cancer Screening and Treatment Center of Nevada, in Reno, agreed to recruit test subjects for us among his stage 4 cancer patients. Dr. Forsythe found that the paw paw capsules, named Paw Paw Cell-Reg, when given one capsule qid, stabilized a number of patients with advanced breast, lung, prostate, lymphatic, and colorectal cancers as well as with Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia; furthermore, the patients showed no abnormalities in liver, kidney, electrolyte, blood sugar, or bone marrow functions. The product was effective whether used alone or as an adjuvant with other treatments including IGF-I and insulin-potentiation. Evidence of effectiveness included reductions in the blood levels of tumor antigens, measurable decreases in tumor sizes, inhibition of further metastases, weight gain, increased mobility, enhanced energy, and increased duration of survival.
See more at Paw Paw Cell-Reg (PawPaw extract)
Food sources: Black Pepper
The treatment of colon cancer cells with piperine has been shown to reduce the ability of the cells to form non-adherent spheres and colonies, suggesting the inhibiting effect of piperine on cancer stem cells, says this study
PSK has been used as an adjunctive cancer treatment in thousands of patients since the mid-1970s. The safety record for PSK is well established in Japan – National Cancer Institute
For example, 225 patients with lung cancer received radiation therapy with or without PSK (3 grams per day). For those with more advanced Stage 3 cancers, more than three times as many individuals taking PSK were alive after five years (26%), compared to those not taking PSK (8%). PSK more than doubled five-year survival in those individuals with less advanced Stage 1 or 2 disease (39% vs.17%) – Life Extension Magazine
This Review of lung cancer studies says: Fifteen of 17 preclinical studies supported anticancer effects for PSK through immunomodulation and potentiation of immune surveillance, as well as through direct tumor inhibiting actions in vivo that resulted in reduced tumor growth and anti-metastatic effects.
See more on PSK page.
Food sources: Onions, Capers, Doc leaves (raw), Lovage (sea parsley), Dill weed.
Quercetin has been demonstrated to induce programmed cell death in many malignant cancer cell lines…a potential cancer stem cell targeting therapeutic, says this study
Food sources: Grapes, berries, plums
This Study says Resveratrol may be able to eliminate Cancer Stem Cell populations from tumors. Resveratrol affects all three discrete stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression)
Red grape polyphenols (resveratrol, quercitin, catechin) inhibit the progression of breast cancer, according to this study.
Salinomycin (anti-biotic drug)
Salinomycin has been shown to inhibit oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria that may contribute to the elimination of Cancer Stem Cells by salinomycin, says this study
This study says salinomycin reduces the proportion of Cancer Stem Cells by more than 100-fold relative to paclitaxel, a commonly used breast cancer chemotherapeutic drug…salinomycin preferentially targets the viability of CSCs within breast cancer cell populations.
Salvestrols are natural compounds in the diet which are converted inside diseased cells, by a specific enzyme, into compounds that can destroy the diseased cell. They are part of a natural rescue mechanism and may be essential to maintain good health. Source: Salvestrol.ca
Here are five case studies demonstrating the efficacy of Salvestrol;
Case #1 Lung cancer
Case #2 Melanoma
Case #3 Prostate cancer
Case #4Breast cancer
Case #5 Bladder cancer
Silibinin (Milk Thistle seed extract)
Recent preclinical studies have shown strong efficacy of silibinin to target cancer cell’s migratory and invasive characteristics as well as their ability to metastasize to distant organs, according to this study
The authors of this study say their data provide sufficient evidence that silibinin has dual efficacy against both bulk colorectal cancer cells cells and colon cancer stem cells.
Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda)
This study found that oral bicarbonate therapy significantly reduced the incidence of metastases in experimental models of breast and prostate cancer… Notably, bicarbonate did not affect the systemic pH or the growth rate of primary tumors but had significant effects on the formation of spontaneous metastases.
Sonodynamic and Photodynamic Therapy Combined
A combination of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), named sono-photodynamic therapy (S-PDT), is a new composite cancer therapy. Because the therapy can significantly improve the tumor curing effect, it has good application prospects in cancer prevention and treatment.
This study states: In 1978, Dougherty reported the first large series of patients successfully treated with PDT with HPD [type of photosensitizer]. Complete or partial responses were observed in 111 of 113 malignant lesions. Clinical studies revealed that PDT can be curative particularly in early-stage tumors. It can prolong survival in inoperable cancers and significantly improve quality of life. Minimal normal tissue toxicity, negligible systemic effects, greatly reduced long-term morbidity…
See more at Sonodynamic and Photodynamic Therapy Combined
Statins increase cancer survival
Thisstudy of 29,498 colorectal cancer patients concluded: Statin use at the time of cancer diagnosis is associated with improved overall survival. The benefit of statin use seems to persist regardless of cancer stage, location, and presence of other cardiovascular comorbidities.
The following excerpts relate to a study presented to the The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR):
The researchers linked data from the Finnish national cancer registry to prescription claims on 10,062 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer between 1995 and 2015 to examine the association between pre- and post-diagnostic statin use and ovarian cancer mortality. …Use of any statins was associated with a 40 percent reduction in ovarian cancer mortality compared with patients who never used statins. Lipophilic statins specifically were associated with a 43 percent reduction in ovarian cancer mortality.
Stiripentol – an epilepsy treatment drug
This study found that stiripentol was between 50 to 100 times more potent than anticancer drug 2-DG in targeting Cancer Stem Cells.
Raw (uncooked) broccoli:
In this study of 239 bladder cancer patients…intake of raw cruciferous vegetables was significantly associated with reduced disease-specific (57% reduction) and overall mortality (43% reduction), a result largely driven by raw broccoli intake. The reduction was observed with consumption of at least one serving raw broccoli per month (average intake 3.9 servings/month), indicating the feasibility of this type of diet intervention strategy. Our findings are consistent with experimental evidence demonstrating that isothiocyanate exposure, as measured by urinary metabolite concentrations, is three to four fold higher in individuals after consumption of raw compared with cooked broccoli.
Food sources: Cruciferous vegetables eg broccoli, Sprouts, cabbages, cauliflower
Shown to target breast cancer stem cells according to this study
A synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic with antibacterial, anticoagulant and potential antiangiogenic activities… In addition, taurolidine also promotes apoptosis by inducing various apoptotic factors and suppresses the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein that plays an important role in angiogenesis. Source: The National Cancer Institute
This study concluded: The application of taurolidine tends to prevent the development of lung metastases. Furthermore, taurolidine seems to reduce established lung metastases in this in vivo model. Taurolidine may offer additional therapeutic options in patients with colon adenocarcinoma.
See more info at Taurolidine page
In patients with non-small cell lung cancer which is advanced or has spread, Tecentriq has been shown to be more effective than a comparator medicine at prolonging patients’ lives. In one main study of 850 patients, those patients given Tecentriq lived on average for 14 months while those given another cancer medicine, docetaxel, lived for an average of 10 months. Similar results were seen in a second lung cancer study of 287 patients where on average patients on Tecentriq lived for 13 months compared with 10 months for patients on docetaxel.
Source: European Medicines Agency
Tian Xian is an extract of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs (ingredients may vary depending on manufacturers) and is used for cancer treatment in traditional medicine.
Study: In this study, we demonstrated that the Chinese herbal cocktail THL could inhibit cancer metastasis and angiogenesis by targeting multiple biological and pathological processes in cancer cells. We also demonstrated that THL, which was delivered one week after tumor implantation, could exert anti-tumor effects but had no adverse effect on body weight in immuno-compromised mice, implicating that THL has potential to be used as a therapeutic agent for established tumors. Moreover, our preliminary results also indicated that oral delivery of THL could inhibit tumor growth and induce anti-tumor immunity in immuno-competent mice…Together these data suggest that THL is a promising cancer therapeutic agent and merits further investigation.
See Tian Xian page
Ukrain is a drug based on the extract of the plant Chelidonium majus L (greater chelandine). It is claimed to be effective against a range of cancers.
The Ukrainian Anti Cancer Institute has this on it’s website:
Incredible results of the treatment of pancreatic cancer were achieved during clinical research studies with NSC-631570 (UKRAIN) carried out by Associate Professor Gansauge and Professor Hans Beger in Germany. They showed that 30% of pancreatic cancer patients lived more than 5 years after treatment with NSC 631570, while medical statistics show that after conventional treatment methods patients with the same diagnosis live only 4-6 months and only 2.2% of them reach the 5-year-survival rate.
This study, published in the European journal of Cancer states:
In a randomised study 108 patients with advanced colorectal cancer, average 61.2 years, were included. 54 patients were treated with Ukrain as monotherapy and 54 with 5-fluororacil. The therapy results (clinical, haematological, immunological, biochemical) show that Ukrain has favourable properties in the treatment of colorectal cancer and clearly show advantages in contrary to 5-fluorouracil. Stability of the disease was reached in 88.8% and only 27.7% in the control group. The pretreatment with Ukrain facilitated the operability of the patients.
See UKRAIN page for more info
Findings suggested that UA is involved in mechanism to affect the proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells and it is a potent anti-ovarian cancer agent, according to this study
Food sources: apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint, rosemary, lavender, oregano, thyme, hawthorn, prunes. Also available as a Supplement
Vitamin E (Tocotrienols from Annotto)
Tocotrienols are a special form of vitamin E not easily found in food or plants. It is best sourced from the Amazon plant Annatto. Tocotrienols ,” according to Dr. Barrie Tan, PhD. “Tocotrienols are 50 times more potent than regular vitamin E and they are known as an antioxidant so put simply the tocotrienols are supercharged to help prevent chronic health conditions as we age…
Note: Tocopherol interferes with the functioning of Tocotrienol
This study of 23 patients is the first to demonstrate that tocotrienol supplementation in combination with chemotherapy is effective in multi-resistant ovarian cancer. Many patients with advanced recurrent ovarian cancer have a short life expectancy and their condition deteriorates rapidly with a progression free survival of 2 to 4 months and a median overall survival of 5 to 7 months. In this study, the progression free survival increased to 7.8 months and a median overall survival of 12 months.
Vitamin C and Doxycycline
This study found that antibiotics, such as Doxycycline, could eradicate Cancer Stem Cells in multiple cancer types. These include: DCIS, breast (ER(+) and ER(-)), ovarian, prostate, lung, and pancreatic carcinomas, as well as melanoma and glioblastoma. The study authors propose the combined use of Doxycycline and Vitamin C as a new strategy for eradicating CSCs.
Extending Life – for those with limited options
The sodium salt of dichloroacetic acid with potential anti-cancer activity. This agent may stimulate apoptosis [programmed cell death] in cancer cells.
This study says: Observational data collected from more than 300 cancer patients with advanced disease revealed measurable benefits from DCA therapy in 60%-70% of cases…Based on our clinical experience, combined with existing publications, off-label DCA therapy is an option for patients with limited available conventional treatments, once they understand and accept the risks and benefits of therapy. This case report shows that even in advanced stage disease, DCA has the potential to prolong life without impacting a patient’s quality of life, as compared to chemotherapy with its frequent debilitating side effects or compromise in physiological function.
Other products with anti-cancer activity:
Study: 3BP, a small molecule, results in a remarkable therapeutic effect when it comes to treating cancers exhibiting a “Warburg effect”. This includes most cancer types.
This study says: 3BP showed a potent action against cancer cells. It interferes with many of their biological pathways which make it an attractive candidate for the management of cancer patients. 3BP was reported to be efficient, safe, less toxic and well tolerated compared to many anticancer agents…
Study: Gossypol, a polyphenol derived from cotton seeds, exhibits potent anti-cancer activities and has completed phase II clinical trials for treatment of human prostate cancer, with promising initial results…
For non-squamous NSCLC [non-small cell lung cancer], one main study involved 582 patients whose disease had progressed despite previous treatments. The average survival with Opdivo was 12 .2 months,compared with 9.4 months with docetaxel.
Opdivo is also used on its own to treat adults with non-small cell lung cancer that has spread locally or to other parts of the body in patients who have previously been treated with other cancer medicines (chemotherapy). Opdivo in combination with ipilimumab is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with intermediate/poor-risk advanced renal cell carcinoma – European Medicines Agency
See Opdivo page