In addition to your Primary Treatment(s), there are other ways to inhibit tumor growth, kill cancer stem cells, and reduce metastasis – thereby prolonging survival.
Part 1: Ways to prolong survival – proven in studies involving cancer patients. Part 2: Ways to target Cancer Stem Cells. Inhibit tumor growth etc – proven in laboratory studies only .
First, a quick overview of cancer stem cells:
Cancer Stem Cells and Metastasis
Around 90% of cancer deaths are as a result of metastasis (cancer spreading to other organs). Cancer stem cells are suspected to be the cause of most – if not all – metastases.
What are Cancer stem cells? This type of stem cell represents a small proportion of the types of cell found in a tumour, and can replicate tumour cells, causing tumours to grow and spread. Cancer stem cells are considered resistant to drug and radiotherapy treatments, and therefore can be left behind after the course of cancer treatment comes to an end, allowing the tumour to regrow and spread around the body. Source: Cardiff University
The Stem Cell Theory of Cancer … many new anti-cancer therapies are evaluated based on their ability to shrink tumors, but if the therapies are not killing the cancer stem cells, the tumor will soon grow back (often with a vexing resistance to the previously used therapy). An analogy would be a weeding technique that is evaluated based on how low it can chop the weed stalks—but no matter how low the weeks are cut, if the roots aren’t taken out, the weeds will just grow back. Source: Stanford Medicine
Food and Cancer Stem Cells This scientific review says natural products, including those found in common foodstuffs have demonstrated the ability to modulate pathways responsible for Cancer Stem Cells function and inhibition.
Part 1: Ways to prolong survival – proven in studies involving cancer patients.
Therapies that prolong survival
This systematic review of a number of studies involving 68,000cancer patients found that superior levels of exercise following a cancer diagnosis were associated with a 28%–44% reduced risk of cancer-specific mortality, 21%–35% lower risk of cancer recurrence, 25%–48% decreased risk of all-cause mortality.
In prostate cancer controlling high blood fat levels is essential. Exercise reduces aggressive and fatal prostate cancer, and increases survival according to a number of research studies.
Oxygen that is given at a pressure that is higher than the pressure of the atmosphere at sea level. In medicine, breathing hyperbaric oxygen increases the amount of oxygen in the body…It is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Hyperbaric oxygen may increase the amount of oxygen in cancer cells, which may make them easier to kill with radiation therapy and chemotherapy – National Cancer Institute
This review says: We included 19 trials in this review (2286 participants: 1103 allocated to HBOT and 1153 to control). For head and neck cancer, there was an overall reduction in the risk of dying at both one year and five years after therapy, and some evidence of improved local tumour control immediately following irradiation…There was a lower incidence of local recurrence of tumour when using HBOT at both one and five years … There was also some evidence with regard to the chance of metastasis at five years
A combination of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), named sono-photodynamic therapy (S-PDT), is a new composite cancer therapy. Because the therapy can significantly improve the tumor curing effect, it has good application prospects in cancer prevention and treatment.
This study states: In 1978, Dougherty reported the first large series of patients successfully treated with PDT with HPD [type of photosensitizer]. Complete or partial responses were observed in 111 of 113 malignant lesions. Clinical studies revealed that PDT can be curative particularly in early-stage tumors. It can prolong survival in inoperable cancers and significantly improve quality of life. Minimal normal tissue toxicity, negligible systemic effects, greatly reduced long-term morbidity…
This Study of 100 “untreatable” terminal cancer patients who were given supplemental ascorbate, usually 10 g/day and 1000 matched controls, similar patients who had received the same treatment except for the ascorbate, found: The ascorbate-treated patients were found to have a mean survival time about 300 days greater than that of the controls. Survival times greater than 1 yr after the date of untreatability were observed for 22% of the ascorbate-treated patients and for 0.4% of the controls. The mean survival time of these 22 ascorbate-treated patients is 2.4 yr after reaching the apparently terminal stage; 8 of the ascorbate-treated patients are still alive, with a mean survival time after untreatability of 3.5 yr.
This study involving 613 patients revealed that Vitamin C treatment dramatically reduced the self-renewal ability, and percentages of Cancer Stem Cells in Liver cancer.
A study was performed from February 1, 1992 to December 31, 2001. A total of 269 patients with histologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma were studied. All of the patients underwent resection of a liver tumor.
Of the 269 patients, 113 received AHCC orally after undergoing curative surgery (AHCC group). The AHCC group had a significantly longer no recurrence period …and an increased overall survival rate when compared to the control group… This study suggests that AHCC intake can improve the prognosis of postoperative HCC patients.
Avemar is an all-natural, clinically proven, dietary supplement for cancer patients. Medical experts recognize Avemar as an effective supportive cancer treatment and recommend complementing the diet of concerned patients with Avemar.
This study reporting on 170 patients with colorectal cancer says the results showed significantly enhanced survival and reduced metastases formation in the Avemar treated group even though the prognostic factors of the patients were worse in this arm.
In another prospective randomized study, 42 stage III melanoma patients participated after radical removal of the primary tumors and the regional lymph-node metastases. Following 4 courses of DTIC treatment, patients were randomly allocated to either receiving 1 yr treatment of Avemar (19 patients) or just observation (23 patients)… after a 7-yr-long follow-up period of the treated patients, log-rank analysis still showed significant differences in favor of Avemar group regarding both progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
This pilot phase II study assessed the efficacy of docetaxel/curcumin in thirty patients with metastatic prostate cancer. 2 progressed and 2 died before the end of treatment. A PSA response was observed in 59% of patients. Partial response was reached for 40% of evaluable patients. The authors concluded: This study produced additional data on curcumin as a treatment for cancer, with a high response rate, good tolerability and patient acceptability.
This 2020 Systematic Review says: Finally, 10 patients participated in this study were able to complete this treatment plan. In 8 patients, the VEGF (Vascular endothelial growth factor) as a tumor marker, which indicates tumor growth, metastasis, and malignancy, was reduced by 30% compared to the baseline before treatment.
Laboratory studies show that Curcumin can target cancer stem cells See Curcumin
This study involving 31 patients states: Oral and subcutaneous administration of specific preparations of bovine tracheal cartilage rings (Catrix), a nontoxic agent, has resulted in a high response rate in 31 cases of a variety of clinical malignancies (response rate 90%, 61% complete). The demonstrated responders include present therapeutic disasters such as glioblastoma multiforme and cancers of the pancreas and lung. Other types which were treated with success included cancers of the ovary, rectum, prostate, cervix, thyroid, and an inoperable squamous cancer of the nose. These responses were observed when full dose therapy was given over prolonged courses of treatment (years).
Food sources: Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and kale.
In this study of 239 patients … intake of raw cruciferous vegetables was significantly associated with reduced disease-specific (57% reduction) and overall mortality (43% reduction), a result largely driven by raw broccoli intake. The reduction was observed with consumption of at least one serving raw broccoli per month (average intake 3.9 servings/month), indicating the feasibility of this type of diet intervention strategy.
This study found that broccoli sprout consumption slowed prostate cancer formation and decreased cancer severity… ***** Note: Broccoli sprouts are 100 times better at providing sulforaphane than the mature broccoli. Broccoli Sprouts Juice is available in Ireland from Vegus Juices
A substance that has been studied as a treatment for cancer and as a treatment for cachexia (body wasting) associated with advanced cancer – National Cancer Institute.In a series of 84 cancer patients treated with hydrazine sulfate it was found that 70% of the cases improved subjectively and 17 % improved objectively according to this study.
This study says: There is good evidence that hydrazine sulfate inhibits gluconeogenesis. Therefore, it may play a role in reducing the severity ofcachexia and in improving the quality of life of cancer patients.
This study says: On the basis of observations available, Sehydrin may be assessed as an alternative drug for the treatment and symptomatic therapy of patients with some advanced solid tumours and malignant lymphomas at a disease stage when the other methods of treatment can not be used.
This study included 250 metastatic solid tumour patients who were randomised to receive Melatonin (20 mg/day orally every day) plus chemotherapy, or chemotherapy alone.The 1-year survival rate and the objective tumour regression rate were significantly higher in patients concomitantly treated with Melatonin than in those who received chemotherapy alone. The tumour response rate in chemo + melatonin group was 42 out of 124 patients versus 19 out of 126 in the chemo only group. 1-year survival: 63 out of 124 patients in the chemo + melatonin group versus 29 out of 126 patients in the chemo only group.
Laboratory studies show that Melatonin can target cancer stem cells See Melatonin
Vitamin E (Tocotrienols from Annotto)
Tocotrienols are a special form of vitamin E not easily found in food or plants. It is best sourced from the Amazon plant Annatto. Tocotrienols ,” according to Dr. Barrie Tan, PhD. “Tocotrienols are 50 times more potent than regular vitamin E and they are known as an antioxidant so put simply the tocotrienols are supercharged to help prevent chronic health conditions as we age… Note: Tocopherol interferes with the functioning of Tocotrienol
This study of 23 patients is the first to demonstrate that tocotrienol supplementation in combination with chemotherapy is effective in multi-resistant ovarian cancer. Many patients with advanced recurrent ovarian cancer have a short life expectancy and their condition deteriorates rapidly with a progression free survival of 2 to 4 months and a median overall survival of 5 to 7 months. In this study, the progression free survival increased to 7.8 months and a median overall survival of 12 months.
Laboratory studies show that Vitamin E can target cancer stem cells
This study included all 54,406 women with Breast Cancer [BC] diagnosed in Sweden 2000 through 2008. It concluded: This population based registry study shows that women treated with second generation antihistamines have a better overall and BC specific survival compared with non users regardless of age, history of allergy, ER status and tumor stage. The results are strongest for desloratadine use and use after BC diagnosis. Second generation antihistamines could offer a nontoxic therapy for both receptor positive and negative BC.
There is some concern that the antihistamine Cimetidine has estrogenic properties. If you have a certain type of breast cancer or prostate cancer, for example, this may be a concern.
This study involving 23 patients tested the anti-Colorectal Cancer properties of oral artesunate (a derivative of Artemisinin). Patients planned for curative surgery were randomised to receive either 14 daily doses of oral artesunate or placebo. During a median follow up of 42 months, there were 6 recurrences in the placebo group and 1 recurrence in an artesunate recipient. The survival beyond 2 years in the artesunate group is estimated at 91% whilst surviving the first recurrence in the placebo group is only 57%.
This study revealed experimental evidences suggesting that artemisinin compounds may be a therapeutic alternative in highly aggressive cancers with rapid dissemination, without developing drug resistance.
Laboratory studies show that Artemisinin can target cancer stem cells
An article in Oncology Times reported on a study involving 3,193 patients: Regular aspirin use after diagnosis of prostate cancer is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer mortality and metastases, according to new data from the large observational Physicians’ Health Study (1982-2009) reported at the 2016 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium (Abstract 306).
“Among men with prostate cancer, regular aspirin use after diagnosis was associated with a 39 percent decreased risk of dying from prostate cancer,”
Laboratory studies show that Aspirin can target cancer stem cells
This study retrospectively reviewed 722 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received radiotherapy concluded: …the incidental use of beta-blockers in this group of patients with NSCLC was associated with improved distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival…
This study says: Propranolol was also shown to have an effect on metastasis to the brain – the other major site of interest in breast cancer.
This meta-analysis provides evidence that beta blocker use can be associated with the prolonged survival of cancer patients, especially patients with early-stage cancer treated primarily with surgery.
This study concluded…we observed reduced cancer-specific mortality among prostate cancer patients taking beta-blockers.
This article in The Lancet referenced a meta-analysis of randomised trials of bisphosphonates involving 18,766 women over a 20 year period. In postmenopausal women, the addition of bisphosphonates resulted in highly significant reductions for bone recurrence (6·6% vs 8·8%) and for breast cancer mortality (14·7% vs 18·0%) at 10 years…There was no reduction in the incidence of contralateral breast cancer or in the risk of metastasis to non‐osseous [consisting of or turned into bone] sites. This landmark report on breast cancer treatment should lead to widespread adoption of bisphosphonates as a standard of care for the adjuvant therapy of early-stage breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
This 2020 study recruited 2400 patients with gastric cancer undergoing gastrectomy…Among them, 651 had type II Diabetes and 1749 patients did not have Diabetes. The study showed that the use of Metformin significantly reduces the risk of tumour recurrence and confers cancer-specific survival benefits in patients with stage III Gastric Cancer and Diabetes after surgery.
This meta-analysis looked at 18 studies (8 on lung cancer risk and 10 on lung cancer survival) were included. Metformin treatment was associated with decreased lung cancer incidence and increased lung cancer survival.
This study reviewed the records of 460 consecutive patients with pathologically proved stage I-III breast cancer…Regarding overall survival, diabetic breast cancer patients treated with metformin as antidiabetic agent had longer mean overall survival time (59.71 months) than diabetic patients not treated with metformin (41.79 months) and nondiabetic patients (52.0 months).
This 2020 Meta-Analysis of 12 studies involving 35,346 Pancreatic Cancer patients found significant differences in overall survival between Pancreatic Cancer patients who were treated with metformin and underwent pancreatectomy and those who underwent pancreatectomy without metformin use.
Laboratory studies show that Metformin can target cancer stem cells
Long-term High-quality Survival Case Report: We show long-term high-quality survival following single-agent treatment with a progesterone receptor antagonist in two cases of advanced metastatic cancer.
This study of 34 ovarian cancer patients treated with Mifepristone says: Nine (26.5%) of these patients had a response to Mifepristone. Three (9%) patients had a complete response, and six (17.5%), a partial response…The response lasted 1 to 4 months in all but one patient. One patient continues to respond after more than 3 years.
Conclusion:Mifepristone has activity against ovarian cancer resistant to cisplatin and paclitaxel. The drug is well tolerated.
Laboratory studies show thatMifepristone can target cancer stem cells
Thisstudy of 29,498colorectal cancer patients concluded: Statin use at the time of cancer diagnosis is associated with improved overall survival. The benefit of statin use seems to persist regardless of cancer stage, location, and presence of other cardiovascular comorbidities.
The following excerpts relate to a study presented to the The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR): The researchers linked data from the Finnish national cancer registry to prescription claims on 10,062 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer between 1995 and 2015 to examine the association between pre- and post-diagnostic statin use and ovarian cancer mortality. …Use of any statins was associated with a 40 percent reduction in ovarian cancer mortality compared with patients who never used statins. Lipophilic statins specifically were associated with a 43 percent reduction in ovarian cancer mortality.
Laboratory studies show that Statins can target cancer stem cells
This article says: Results from 675 cancer patients show that Salicinium effectively treats many different types of cancer, significantly extending survival for all groups studied (including a majority of patients with treatment-resistant Stage IV cancer).
Salicinium is a natural plant based extract, a complex sugar molecule that is harmless to normal cells in the body because they cannot absorb a “complex glycome”. Circulating tumor cells are at the forefront of an ongoing or escalading malignant process. Salicinium affects these cells first, therefore, contributing to halting the spread of malignancy – Reno Integrative Medical Center
Pawpaw is a tropical tree native to regions of North America. The fruit of this tree is reputed to have anti-cancer properties.
This study of 94 patients says: James Forsythe, M.D., Director of the Cancer Screening and Treatment Center of Nevada, in Reno, agreed to recruit test subjects for us among his stage 4 cancer patients. Dr. Forsythe found that the paw paw capsules, named Paw Paw Cell-Reg, when given one capsule qid, stabilized a number of patients with advanced breast, lung, prostate, lymphatic, and colorectal cancers as well as with Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia; furthermore, the patients showed no abnormalities in liver, kidney, electrolyte, blood sugar, or bone marrow functions. The product was effective whether used alone or as an adjuvant with other treatments including IGF-I and insulin-potentiation. Evidence of effectiveness included reductions in the blood levels of tumor antigens, measurable decreases in tumor sizes, inhibition of furthermetastases, weight gain, increased mobility, enhanced energy, and increased duration of survival.
PSK has been used as an adjunctive cancer treatment in thousands of patients since the mid-1970s. The safety record for PSK is well established in Japan – National Cancer Institute
For example, 225 patients with lung cancer received radiation therapy with or without PSK (3 grams per day). For those with more advanced Stage 3 cancers, more than three times as many individuals taking PSK were alive after five years (26%), compared to those not taking PSK (8%). PSK more than doubled five-year survival in those individuals with less advanced Stage 1 or 2 disease (39% vs.17%) – Life Extension Magazine
This Review of lung cancer studies says: Fifteen of 17 preclinical studies supported anticancer effects for PSK through immunomodulation and potentiation of immune surveillance, as well as through direct tumor inhibiting actions in vivo that resulted in reduced tumor growth and anti-metastatic effects.
Ukrain is a drug based on the extract of the plant Chelidonium majus L (greater chelandine). It is claimed to be effective against a range of cancers.
The Ukrainian Anti Cancer Institute has this on it’s website: Incredible results of the treatment of pancreatic cancer were achieved during clinical research studies with NSC-631570 (UKRAIN) carried out by Associate Professor Gansauge and Professor Hans Beger in Germany. They showed that 30% of pancreatic cancer patients lived more than 5 years after treatment with NSC 631570, while medical statistics show that after conventional treatment methods patients with the same diagnosis live only 4-6 months and only 2.2% of them reach the 5-year-survival rate.
This study, published in the European journal of Cancer states: In a randomised study 108 patients with advanced colorectal cancer, average 61.2 years, were included. 54 patients were treated with Ukrain as monotherapy and 54 with 5-fluororacil. The therapy results (clinical, haematological, immunological, biochemical) show that Ukrain has favourable properties in the treatment of colorectal cancer and clearly show advantages in contrary to 5-fluorouracil. Stability of the disease was reached in 88.8% and only 27.7% in the control group. The pretreatment with Ukrain facilitated the operability of the patients.
This 2014 study presented case reports of 9 metastatic cancer patients who received the extract Nerium oleander. Cases included 4 colon cancer patients, 3 pancreatic cancer patients (1 neuroendocrine and 2 adenocarcinoma), 1 renal cell carcinoma and 1 lung cancer patient…The renal cell patient experienced tumor regression for 12 months with the extract alone; the 3 pancreatic cancer patients and a colon cancer patient experienced disease stabilization. Survival times were extended for all patients with survival times ranging from 32 months to 11 years for these patients with metastatic disease.
Anvirzel seems to be the first cancer remedy to show positive results for leiomyosarcoma, probably the deadliest of cancers. Anvirzel also crosses the blood-brain barrier and gives hope to people with brain tumors.
Laboratory studies show that Oleander extracts can target cancer stem cells
Food sources: Cruciferous vegetables eg broccoli, Sprouts, cabbages, cauliflower Available as a supplement
In this study of 239 bladder cancer patients…intake of raw cruciferous vegetables was significantly associated with reduced disease-specific (57% reduction) and overall mortality (43% reduction), a result largely driven by raw broccoli intake. The reduction was observed with consumption of at least one serving raw broccoli per month (average intake 3.9 servings/month), indicating the feasibility of this type of diet intervention strategy. Our findings are consistent with experimental evidence demonstrating that isothiocyanate exposure, as measured by urinary metabolite concentrations, is three to four fold higher in individuals after consumption of raw compared with cooked broccoli.
Shown to target breastcancer stem cells(in the laboratory) according to thisstudy
Other substances that prolong survival
Cesium Chloride (is an inorganic, colorless, compound.)
This study reports on 50 patients treated with Cesium. An impressive 50% recovered from various cancers, i.e., cancer of unknown primary, breast, colon, prostate, pancrease, lung, liver, lymphoma, ewing sarcoma of the pelvis and adeno-cancer of the gallbladder. A consistent finding in these patients was the disappearance of pain within the initial 3 days of Cs-treatment.
This study warns: Cesium chloride, which is used as alternative therapy by some cancer patients, has been determined to have significant adverse effects, especially cardiovascular effects.
This study concluded that CsCl is devoid from toxicity provided adequate diet and supplements are administered.
The sodium salt of dichloroacetic acid with potential anti-cancer activity. This agent may stimulate apoptosis [programmed cell death] in cancer cells.
This study says: Observational data collected from more than 300 cancer patients with advanced disease revealed measurable benefits from DCA therapy in 60%-70% of cases…Based on our clinical experience, combined with existing publications, off-label DCA therapy is an option for patients with limited available conventional treatments, once they understand and accept the risks and benefits of therapy.
This case report shows that even in advanced stage disease, DCA has the potential to prolong life without impacting a patient’s quality of life, as compared to chemotherapy with its frequent debilitating side effects or compromise in physiological function.
Laboratory studies show that Sodium Dichloroacetate can target cancer stem cells
Part 2: Ways to target Cancer Stem Cells. Inhibit tumor growth etc – proven in laboratory studies only .
Apigenin is found in Dried parsley, dried flower of chamomile, celery seeds, vine spinach and Chinese celery. Available in supplement form.
Apigenin and quercetin, can reduce the self-renewal capacity of Glioblastomastem-like cells. These findings underscore the therapeutic potential of the flavonoids to suppress Glioblastoma metastasis by regulating the migration and invasion of GlioblastomaStem Cells, according to this study.
This study says: All evidence gathered thus far clearly indicates that apigenin has strong anti-cancer activities against various human cancers alone and in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents…These selective anti-cancer effects are further shown to suppress cancer stem cells (CSCs) in various types of cancers.
This study says Apigenin induced cancer cell death via apoptosis, which was triggered by mitochondrial redox impairment. Additionally, apigenin inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion.
This study says apigenin is a potent suppressor of cell viability, migration and invasion.
Food sources:Elderberries, chokeberries, bilberries, raspberries, blackcurrants, blackberries, blueberries, purple potatoes Also available in supplement form.
This study found baked purple-fleshed potato suppressed proliferation and induced programmed cell death in colon cancer stem cells.
This Review says studies found anthocyanins affect the proliferation of cancer cells, inhibiting of the ability of cancer cells to divide uncontrollably, the induction of apoptosis, the process of angiogenesis where tumors form new blood vessels, and the cancer cells invasion through healthy tissue. See Anthocyanins
The authors of this study showed that CAPE inhibits the growth of breast cancer stem cells and potentially makes them more susceptible to chemotherapeutic agents when used in combination.
The authors of this study say their results strongly suggest that CAPE could be a powerful inhibitor of cancer stem cell growth and functions that are responsible for CSC-mediated recurrence of breast cancer and increased patient mortality.
This scientific review says that recent studies indicate that CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester ) treatment can effectively suppress the proliferation, survival, and metastasis of oral cancer cells… CAPE treatment will be useful for treatment of advanced oral cancer patients.
Ashwagandha (Withaferin A)
The herbal supplement Withaferin A significantly inhibited the tumorigenic potential of isolated cancer stem cellsin vitro and significantly reduced its expression in tumors collected from mice, according to this Study
This study says Withaferin A induces cell death (apoptosis/necrosis) in multiple types of tumor cells.
Berberine is an alkaloid isolated from the roots and bark of Berberis plants and is available as a supplement.
This study showed the anti-cancer stem cell effect of berberine on oral cancer.
β-carotene was shown to strongly increase the anticancer efficacy against neuroblastoma cancer stem-like cells. Moreover, these results suggest that the targeting of cancer stem cells is a novel mechanism of β-carotene. Thus, β-carotene is a potential chemotherapeutic reagent for this cancer. In conclusion, the present study revealed that BC [B-carotine] exhibits excellent anti-CSC [cancer stem cell] qualities, says this study
The results in human studies where β-carotene has been measured show that it is strongly associated with the consumption of green and yellow vegetables, says this study.
Suppresses the generation of breast cancer stem cells according to this study, while this study says it inhibits the proliferation of melanoma cells.
Some of the mechanisms by which blueberries have been shown to prevent carcinogenesis include inhibition of the production of pro-inflammatory molecules, oxidative stress and products of oxidative stress such as DNA damage, inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, says this study.
Capsiacin (Cayenne Pepper)
Food sources: Cayenne, green or red chili, spur or tabasco peppers
This study review says: Capsaicin exhibits strong anticancer activity through targeting multiple signaling pathways and cancer-associated genes in different tumor stages including initiation, promotion, progression and metastasis. Overall, the anticancer mechanisms of capsaicin include activation of apoptosis, cell-growth arrest and inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. Capsaicin stimulates the anti-tumorigenic/tumor-suppressive signaling pathway and related transcription factors, whereas it inhibits oncogenic signaling pathways and tumor promoters. In addition, capsaicin interacts with other cancer-preventive agents synergistically, providing the possibility for the potential use of capsaicin in cancer therapy with other chemotherapeutic agents.
Food sources: Carrots, yams, sweet potatoes, papaya, watermelon, cantaloupe, mangos, spinach, kale, tomatoes, bell peppers and oranges.
Study: Observational studies strongly evidenced that carotenoids possess potential anti-metastasis actions. The data presented in this review suggest that carotenoids may hit cancer cells by targeting multiple molecular signaling pathways…Marine carotenoids have attained considerable attention in this review that they are reported to possess comparatively potent anti-cancer effects over terrestrial carotenoids.
Falcarinol and falcarindiol
Polyacetylenes derived from carrot and parsley
The authors of this study say they provide several pieces of evidence suggesting that falcarindiol has the anticancer role by targeting glioblastoma cells, as well as glioblastoma stem-like cells. Falcarindiol was shown to selectively kill colorectal cancer cells and repress tumor growth, without affecting normal colon epithelial cells. The anticancer function of falcarindiol was further demonstrated with breast cancer cells in which falcarindiol contributed to autophagy-dependent tumor cell death. This study says falcarindiol inhibits development of breast and other cancers.
Feverfew and Green Chirayta (plant extracts)
This review says “the compound parthenolide, which is derived from the medicinal plant feverfew, has recently been shown to preferentially induce acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) stem cells to undergo apoptosis. Importantly, parthenolide had no discernable effect on normal blood cells.”
This study shows that feverfew plant extract and Green chirayta plant extract are highly effective anti-myeloma cancer stem cell agents, with Green chirayta plant extract displaying increased selectivity for myeloma cancer stem cells compared to feverfew plant extract. The data presented here constitute the first report of natural products with anti-Cancer Stem Cell activity in myeloma cancer
Green Tea (EGCG)
According to this study, numerous reports have shown the ability of EGCG to specifically modulate cancer stem cells in a variety of cancer types. EGCG inhibited colorectal cancer stem cells.
This study suggested that EGCG could be an effective natural compound targeting colorectal Cancer Stem Cells.
EGCG also displays an intriguing effect in adjuvant therapy and prevention of recurrence. As reported, EGCG reduced the recurrence by 51.6% in patients with colorectal adenoma after polypectomy.
Food sources: vegetables such as cabbage, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, radishes, and broccoli. Also available as a Supplement.
The authors of this research paper say previous studies have shown that I3C inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and prevent or delay the progression of cancer, through its ability to attackcancer stem cells…
I3C has a widespread effect on multiple cancer cells, such as breast cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancers, according to this study. This demonstrates the I3C plays a significant role in either the cell cycle arrest or apoptosis of various cancers.
Food sources: Tomatoes, watermelon, asparagus, pink grapefruit, red cabbage.
In this review, the authors highlight the remarkable ability of phytochemicals to decrease the replicative capacity of Cancer Stem Cells…
This study says Lycopene has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell cycle progression in various cancer cells.
A combination of vitamin E, selenium, and lycopene has been shown to dramatically inhibit prostate cancer development and to increase disease-free survival. Lycopene has also been shown to suppress the growth of lung cancer cells, according to this study
Niclosamide (tapeworm treatment)
This study concluded: …we have provided evidence that the antihelminthic niclosamide inhibits cancer stemness, extracellular matrix remodeling, and metastasis [in oral squamous cell carcinoma]
Food sources: Black Pepper
The treatment of colon cancer cells with piperine has been shown to reduce the ability of the cells to form non-adherent spheres and colonies, suggesting the inhibiting effect of piperine on cancer stem cells, says this study
Food sources: Apples, onions, green peppers, red leaf lettuce, asparagus, broccoli, grapes, beans and tomatoes.
Quercetin has been demonstrated to induce programmed cell death in many malignant cancer cell lines…a potential cancer stem cell targeting therapeutic, says this study
Food sources: Grapes, wine
This Study says Resveratrol may be able to eliminate Cancer Stem Cell populations from tumors. Resveratrol affects all three discrete stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression)
Red grape polyphenols (resveratrol, quercitin, catechin) inhibit the progression of breast cancer, according to this study.
Salinomycin (anti-biotic drug)
Salinomycin has been shown to inhibit oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria that may contribute to the elimination of Cancer Stem Cells by salinomycin, says this study
This study says salinomycin reduces the proportion of Cancer Stem Cells by more than 100-fold relative to paclitaxel, a commonly used breast cancer chemotherapeutic drug…salinomycin preferentially targets the viability of CSCs within breast cancer cell populations.
Salinomycin and Silver nanoparticles This study says a combination of salinomycin and silver nanoparticles enhances apoptosis and autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells…the combination of Sal and AgNPs may be a suitable therapy, because together they have specific toxicity for CSCs [cancer stem cells] and specifically target non-CSC populations within tumors. These characteristics of Sal make it a potential candidate to increasingly sensitize cells. These findings provide evidence that the combination treatment with Sal and AgNPs might be an effective therapeutic strategy for eliminating CSCs and cancer cells.
Silibinin (Milk Thistle seed extract)
Recent preclinical studies have shown strong efficacy of silibinin to target cancer cell’s migratory and invasive characteristics as well as their ability to metastasize to distant organs, according to this study
The authors of this study say their data provide sufficient evidence that silibinin has dual efficacy against both bulk colorectal cancer cells cells and colon cancer stem cells.
Stiripentol – an epilepsy treatment drug
This study found that stiripentol was between 50 to 100 times more potent than anticancer drug 2-DG in targeting Cancer Stem Cells.
Food sources: Ginseng, calendula, rosemarie, apple peel, pear, cranberry, plum. Also available as a Supplement
Findings suggested that UA is involved in mechanism to affect the proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells and it is a potent anti-ovarian cancer agent, according to this study
Sources: Sunlight, salmon, sardines, herring and mackerel.
This 2019 study says: Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D may suppress cancer progression through targeting Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) compartment. The role of vitamin D in regulating CSCs in gastrointestinal cancers has been thoroughly reviewed in our previous report.
Although the preclinical and epidemiologic data are persuasive and provide supportive evidence for continued development of vitamin D or its analogues for cancer therapy, no well-designed clinical trial of vitamin D has been carried out.
This study says: Vitamin D and its analogs have inhibitory effects on cancer stem cell signaling in various types of human cancer cells and may be promising therapeutic/preventive agents against Cancer Stem Cells.
This 2019 study says: In summary, vitamin D–VDR [vitamin D receptor] signaling…is associated with less metastatic disease and stronger host immune responses. This is evidence of a causal relationship between vitamin D–VDR signaling and melanoma survival…
This Review Article says: Vitamin D affects several cellular mechanisms such as inhibiting differentiation, proliferation, metastasis and invasion, angiogenesis, inducing cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis…
This study found that antibiotics, such as Doxycycline, could eradicate Cancer Stem Cells in multiple cancer types. These include: DCIS, breast (ER(+) and ER(-)), ovarian, prostate, lung, and pancreatic carcinomas, as well as melanoma and glioblastoma. The study authors propose the combined use of Doxycycline and Vitamin C as a new strategy for eradicating CSCs.
Food compared to Drugs in preventing Angiogenesis in cancer patients. Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels to feed tumors.
Source: William Li MD, Angiogenesis Foundation
Fasting induces autophagy. This 2020 laboratory study says the preponderance of evidence indicates that autophagy suppresses tumorigenesis and inhibits cancer cell adaptation, proliferation, survival, and invasion or metastasis.
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment found in yeast, microalgae, trout, salmon, shrimp, krill and crayfish among other sea creatures.
Laboratory studies Study: According to the collected data presented here, astaxanthin treatment is an effective method of reducing the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Astaxanthin has shown demonstrated a consistent ability to reduce multiple types of cancer. These findings have the potential to incite many different types of medical research that could affect modern-day cancer treatment.
This study examined the potential of astaxanthin used with chemo to treat eye tumors at low laser irradiance. The study found that astaxanthin can enhance thermal effects during laser irradiation to destroy cancerous tumors and achieve complete tumor eradication without any significant toxic effects.
What are Beta Glutans? A substance found in bacteria, plants, and certain foods, such as cereal grains and mushrooms. Beta-glucan may stimulate the immune system and help kill cancer cells. Source: National Cancer Institute
This study saysb–Glucanshowsanticarcinogenic activity,prevent oncogenesisand preventmetastasis.
This study says these mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides that can increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function… beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth in promotion stage too.
Medical Biomagnetism also known as Biomagnetic Pair Therapy is a therapeutic system developed by Dr Isaac Goiz Duran, MD based on his discovery of the Biomagnetic Pair (BMP) in 1988.
It’s being considered by many Health Professionals the Medicine of the Future, and it’s being practiced at hospitals and clinics while recognized by major medical institutions and governments as part of their health care programs. It is now taught at several Universities worldwide.
Chloroquine, a drug currently used to treat malaria, may be useful in treating patients with metastatic cancers according to a new study by University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center.
Medicinal mushroom (available in supplement form)
Study: Cordyceps is a genus of ascomycete fungi that has been used for traditional herbal remedies. It contains various bioactive ingredients including cordycepin…It is important to acknowledge that cordycepin not only exhibits proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells, but also inhibits cell metastasis in tumor cells, demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent in the larger scope of cancer.
Dipyridamole (an anticoagulant)
Anticoagulants may inhibit the adherence (or trapping) of cancer cells to capillary walls, so that cancer cells remain in systemic circulation and thus are exposed for a prolonged period to a hostile environment with the potential to eliminate cancer cells, according to this study.
This studyconcluded:…the present study provides further insights into the molecular mechanisms of dipyridamole action, showing its ability to inhibit triple-negative breast-cancer primary tumor growth and metastasis formation.
This study says: Therapy with RA-233, a dipyridamole analogue, leads to an increased overall survival in patients with localized NSCLC [non-small cell lung cancer]. ***** In several studies, the simultaneous use of anti-histamines such as Tagamet (cimetidine) alongside Dipyridamole was shown to be important. There are numerous studies on histamines in the fight against cancer.
Dr. Matthias Rath Cellular Solution
Dr Rath’s website says: Although various natural substances such as vitamin C, green tea polyphenols and others have shown anti-cancer activity…they have to be used in very high doses which are possible only through intravenous delivery.
Our approach has been based on a synergy of individual components that allows for controlling multiple cancer mechanisms at once and achieving better physiological effects without using large doses of individual components.
We have developed a specific synergistic combination of nutrients that can inhibit invasion of cancer cells in the tissue and control other key mechanisms of cancer at the same time…Using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, we provided comprehensive scientific data that this nutrient synergy can:
1. Inhibit tumor growth and cancer metastasis 2. Inhibit angiogenesis 3. Induce natural cancer cell death (apoptosis) 4. Decrease inflammation See Dr. Matthias Rath Cellular Solution
This study says: Biomarker studies in breast cancer patients indicate increased tumor cell apoptosis, decreased HER-2 expression, decreased tumor cell proliferation, and anti-angiogenic activity in vivo at doses between 25 g ground flax or 50 mg SDG per day…Current evidence suggests that flax consumption may decrease risk of breast cancer development and may exert antitumor effects in women with breast cancer when used at doses of 25 g ground flaxseed or 50 mg SDG per day.
[SDG = Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, an antioxidant phytoestrogen present in flax seeds.]
Extract of mushroom Albatrellus confluens (Fused Polypore)
Study: Grifolin, a natural product isolated from the mushroom Albatrellus confluens, has been reported to be a potent anti-cancer agent in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and osteosarcoma. The data obtained in this study revealed that grifolin is capable of inhibiting the growth and invasion of gastric cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and suppressing the ERK1/2 pathway. Our results support the potent utility of grifolin as an anti-tumor lead compound against gastric cancer cells.
Food sources: Soybeans and Soy protein. Inhibits ovariancancer stem cells says this study
This study analysed 9514 breast cancer survivors with a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer between 1991 and 2006 from 2 US cohorts and 1 Chinese cohort. Soy isoflavone intake (mg/d) was measured with validated food-frequency questionnaires. After a mean follow-up of 7.4 years, postdiagnosis soy food consumption of ≥10 mg isoflavones/day was associated with a nonsignificant reduced risk of breast cancer–specific mortality and a statistically significant reduced risk of recurrence.
See also Haelan 951 (A fermented soybean-derived beverage)
Ginger, a cousin spice of super anti-cancer substance turmeric, is known for its ability to shrink tumors.
This studysays: The health-promoting perspectives of ginger are well known. It can treat a wide range of diseases via immunonutrition and anti-inflammatory responses…the anticancer potential of ginger is well documented and its functional ingredients like gingerols, shogaol, and paradols are the valuable ingredients which can prevent various cancers, angiogenesis and metastasis, induction of apoptosis.
This study found Ginger treatment of cultured ovarian cancer cells induced profound growth inhibition in all cell lines tested.
This study says growth arrest and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells treated with 6-gingerol, was shown to occur. Gingerol has been purported to exert cancer chemopreventative effects by influencing various steps of the metastatic process…cells treated with 6-gingerol showed reduction in matrix metalloproteases MMP2 and MMP9 and pointed towards favorable response to the drug in processes involved in cell adhesion, migration, invasion and proliferation.
Nosebleed, slow blood clotting: In a 76-year-old woman on long-term blood-thinning therapy who took ginger products. Clotting returned to normal after discontinuing ginger and with vitamin K administration.
Graviola is a tree prevalent in the rain forests of Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. The fruits, also known as soursop, are consumed as food…Graviola is also available as a dietary supplement and widely promoted as an alternative treatment for cancer…
This study says: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an oncogene frequently overexpressed in breast cancer (BC), and its overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance. EGFR is therefore a rational target for BC therapy development. This study demonstrated that a graviola fruit extract (GFE) significantly downregulated EGFR gene expression and inhibited the growth of BC cells and xenografts.
A fermented soybean-derived phytochemical beverage with potential antineoplastic activity. Fermented soybean protein beverage is reported to exhibit immunostimulatory, anti-viral, pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities and to enhance the cytotoxic effects of natural killer (NK) cells.
Hesperidin is a major dietary flavanone which is abundantly found in many citrus fruits like oranges and exhibits a wide range of biological properties. Hesperidin has been recognized as a potent anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-oxidant agent according to the data obtained from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies, according to this study
This study says Hesperidin has been proven to be an effective medicine possessing many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory…and inhibition of tumor promoters. Hesperidin has the potential to be developed as a chemotherapeutic or adjuvant agent for human cervical cancer.
Hesperidin, an important bioflavonoid, is widely found in Citrus species and acts as potent antioxidant and anticancer agent, says this study
An alternative approach to medicine based on the belief that natural substances, prepared in a special way and used most often in very small amounts, restore health.
In this randomized controlled trial, 410 patients, who were treated by standard anti-neoplastic therapy, were randomized to receive or not receive classical homeopathic adjunctive therapy in addition to standard therapy. The study took place at the Medical University Vienna, Department of Medicine I, Clinical Division of Oncology.
RESULTS: 373 patients yielded at least one of three measurements. The improvement of global health status between visits 1 and 3 was significantly stronger in the homeopathy group by 7.7 when compared with the control group. A significant group difference was also observed with respect to subjective wellbeing by 14.7 in favor of the homeopathic as compared with the control group. Control patients showed a significant improvement only in subjective wellbeing between their first and third visits.
Honokiol is a lignin isolated from the bark, seed cones, and leaves of the trees of various Magnolia species. Honokiol has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries.
This Review concluded: For centuries, researchers have been searching for strategies to control cancer progression through different approaches. Honokiol is a potential natural compound that exerts multiple effects on different cellular processes in various cancer models. Honokiol has been shown to regulate cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, as well as the inhibition of metastasis and angiogenesis through various signalling pathways.
A molecule present in mammalian cells and obtained from various dietary sources such as grains and legumes, Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is used to prevent and treat cancer.
This study says: A striking anticancer effect of IP6 was demonstrated in different experimental models. Inositol is also a natural constituent possessing moderate anticancer activity. The most consistent and best anticancer results were obtained from the combination of IP6 plus inositol. In addition to reducing cell proliferation, IP6 increases differentiation of malignant cells, often resulting in a reversion to normal phenotype…
The evidence presented…suggests that ITZ has a number of anti-cancer effects at clinically achievable doses, particularly in NSCLC, BCC, and prostate cancer. There is evidence that that it may also be applicable to a number of other cancers, including glioblastoma, breast, pancreatic, and ovarian. More generally, the main mechanisms of action investigated to date, antiangiogenic and Hedgehog inhibition, may serve to identify other cancer types where investigation with ITZ may be beneficial.
This study found that kombucha induced cell growth inhibition by 20% in laboratory tests.
MSKE (Muscadine grape skin extract)
This study says: Here we provide the first evidence that dietary agents, namely, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, or a mixture of polyphenols from green tea (polyphenon E) or grapevine extract (vineatrol), impede prostate cancer cell growthin vitro and in vivo…
A modest amount of red wine per week enhances the immune system.
The results of this study suggest that Naringenin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in citrus fruits, has a potentially useful inhibitory effect on tumor growth.
This study says that naringenin inhibits bladder cancer cell migration and, thus, may have the potential to suppress bladder cancer metastasis.
Nigella Sativa (Black Seeds)
Nigella sativa is a flowering plant found throughout India, Arabia, and Europe. Nigella sativa has been proven over and over again to successfully treat cancer without the use of conventional treatments. Nigella sativa has been shown to be effective against numerous cancers, such as pancreatic, colon, prostate, breast and even brain cancers.
This study says: Experimental findings and recent advances in the field highlight TQ as an effective therapeutic agent for the suppression of tumor development, growth and metastasis for a wide range of tumors. [Thymoquinone (TQ) is the bioactive phytochemical constituent of the seeds oil of Nigella sativa]
Papaya is a soft tropical fruit with a yellowish-orange color.
Carica papaya is an important and promising natural medicinal plant which could be utilized in several pharmaceutical and medical applications because of its effectiveness, availability and safety… Papaya promotes immune system. Papaya is a potent cancer fighter that is highly effective against hormone related to cancer as well as other cancer. Papaya can stop the growth of cancer cell, halt metastasis and normalize cell cycle, says this Review
This study concluded: The black seeds from papaya may have a potential to reduce growth of prostate cells; however, consumption of white seeds should be avoided as they may stimulate pre-existing prostate cancer.
Salvestrols are natural compounds in the diet which are converted inside diseased cells, by a specific enzyme, into compounds that can destroy the diseased cell. They are part of a natural rescue mechanism and may be essential to maintain good health. Source: Salvestrol.ca
Here are five case studies demonstrating the efficacy of Salvestrol; Case #1 Lung cancer Case #2 Melanoma Case #3 Prostate cancer Case #4 Breast cancer Case #5 Bladder cancer
This study found that oral bicarbonate therapy significantly reduced the incidence of metastases in experimental models of breast and prostate cancer… Notably, bicarbonate did not affect the systemic pH or the growth rate of primary tumors but had significant effects on the formation of spontaneous metastases.
A synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic with antibacterial, anticoagulant and potential antiangiogenic activities… In addition, taurolidine also promotes apoptosis by inducing various apoptotic factors and suppresses the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein that plays an important role in angiogenesis. Source: The National Cancer Institute
This study concluded: The application of taurolidine tends to prevent the development of lung metastases. Furthermore, taurolidine seems to reduce establishedlung metastases in this in vivo model. Taurolidine may offer additional therapeutic options in patients with colon adenocarcinoma.
A large scale review of research by Australia and Chinese University scientists has proved with thousands of studies using hundreds of thousands of cancer patients that Chinese herbal medicine offers significant treatment for most types of cancers – including breast cancer.
Study: 3BP, a small molecule, results in a remarkable therapeutic effect when it comes to treating cancers exhibiting a “Warburg effect”. This includes most cancer types.
This study says: 3BP showed a potent action against cancer cells. It interferes with many of their biological pathways which make it an attractive candidate for the management of cancer patients. 3BP was reported to be efficient, safe, less toxic and well tolerated compared to many anticancer agents…
Study: Gossypol, a polyphenol derived from cotton seeds, exhibits potent anti-cancer activities and has completed phase II clinical trials for treatment of human prostate cancer, with promising initial results…
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