Stop your cancer spreading

Stop your cancer spreading

Around 90% of cancer deaths are as a result of metastasis (cancer spreading to other organs). Cancer stem cells are suspected to be the cause of most – if not all – metastases.

The American Association for Cancer Research determined that a cancer stem cell is “a cell within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor”

The idea that cancer is primarily driven by a smaller population of stem cells has important implications. For instance, many new anti-cancer therapies are evaluated based on their ability to shrink tumors, but if the therapies are not killing the cancer stem cells, the tumor will soon grow back (often with a vexing resistance to the previously used therapy).
Source: Ludwig Center, Stanford Medicine

Food and Cancer Stem Cells
A new scientific review confirms conventional therapeutics including chemotherapy and radiation therapy exhibit poor performance against Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs), leading to tumor regrowth and metastasis. Many natural products, including those found in common foodstuffs have demonstrated the ability to modulate pathways responsible for Cancer Stem Cells function and inhibition.

Importantly, emerging evidence strongly suggests that diet is a major modulator of the epigenetic state of cells and is able to reverse abnormal or altered gene expression patterns, according to this review

Certain Foods can kill Cancer Stem Cells
Many natural products, including those found in common foodstuffs have demonstrated the ability to modulate pathways responsible for Cancer Stem Cells function and inhibition. Some supplements and a few non-cancer drugs can also kill these stem cells.

Here is a list of these products, followed by a look at the scientifis evidence supporting their efficacy.

Foods that kill Cancer Stem Cells

Green Tea
Vitamin D

Sunshine, fish, beef liver, cheese, yogurt
Leafy green vegetables, carrots, sweet potatoes, peas,
Grapes, berries, plums

Soybeans and Soy protein
Onions, Capers, Doc leaves (raw), Lovage (sea parsley)
Cruciferous vegetables eg broccoli, Sprouts, cabbages, cauliflower
Tomatoes, watermelon, papaya, pink grapefruit
Black pepper
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C)

Cabbage, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, radishes, and broccoli
Falcarinol and falcarindiol

Polyacetylenes derived from carrot and parsley
Ursolic acid
Apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint
Purple Potatoes

Parsley, thyme, chamomile and red pepper

Supplements that kill Cancer Stem Cells

Antioxidant extracted from honeybee hive (bee glue)
Withaferin A
Milk Thistle seed extract
Feverfew and Green chirayta (Andrographis Paniculata)

Drugs that kill Cancer Stem Cells

Doxycycline (an antibiotic)
Doxycycline and Vitamin C
Metformin (diabetes drug)
Stiripentol (epilepsy drug)
Salinomycin (antibiotic drug)
Niclosamide (tapeworm treatment)


Reduces Metastasis

Avemar (fermented wheat germ extract)

Sodium Bicarbonate
Chloroquine (malaria drug)
Niclosamide (tapeworm treatment)

Inhibits Tumor Growth

Naringenin (found in citrus fruits)

Hesperiden (found in citrus fruits)

Magnet therapy
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
Ozone Therapy

A look at some of the science supporting these benefits.

Green Tea (EGCG)
According to this study, numerous reports have shown the ability of EGCG to specifically modulate cancer stem cells in a variety of cancer types. EGCG inhibited colorectal cancer stem cells.

Vitamin D
Sunshine spurs the body to make vitamin D.

Food sources: Fish such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel. Small amounts of vitamin D are found in beef liver, cheese, and egg yolks.

This study says Vitamin D and its analogs have inhibitory effects on cancer stem cell signaling in various types of human cancer cells and may be promising therapeutic/preventive agents against Cancer Stem Cells.

This study concluded: Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in Gastrointestinal Tract malignancies. Vitamin D affects several cellular mechanisms such as inhibiting differentiation, proliferation, metastasis and invasion, angiogenesis, inducing cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, thus supporting its anticancer role.

This study says: Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that vitamin D plays an important role in the regulation of stem cells of the prostate and the skin. Moreover, vitamin D is a well known inducer of the terminal differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells… Recently, vitamin D and its analogs were shown to reduce the number of CSCs in breast cancer, further supporting their potential as therapeutic agents.
See Vitamin D

Food sources: Leafy green vegetables, carrots, sweet potatoes, peas, green bell peppers, avacado, and kiwi

Exhibits excellent anti-Cancer Stem Cell qualities according to this study
Also available in Supplement form.

Food sources: Turmeric

Has been shown to exhibit cytotoxic effects on Cancer Stem Cells and selectively targets CSC in Esophageal squamous carcinoma according to this Study
See Curcumin

Food sources: Grapes, berries, plums

This Study says Resveratrol may be able to eliminate Cancer Stem Cell populations from tumors. Resveratrol affects all three discrete stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression)

Red grape polyphenols (resveratrol, quercitin, catechin) inhibit the progression of breast cancer, according to this study.

Food sources: Soybeans and Soy protein
Inhibits ovarian cancer stem cells says this study

Food sources: Onions, Capers, Doc leaves (raw), Lovage (sea parsley), Dill weed.
Has been demonstrated to induce programmed cell death in many malignant cancer cell lines…a potential cancer stem cell targeting therapeutic, says this study

Food sources: Cruciferous vegetables eg broccoli, Sprouts, cabbages, cauliflower
Shown to target breast cancer stem cells according to this study

Lycopene (phytochemical)
Food sources: Tomatoes, watermelon, papaya, pink grapefruit
In this review, the authors highlight the remarkable ability of phytochemicals to decrease the replicative capacity of Cancer Stem Cells…These phytochemicals have been thoroughly studied for at least three decades…these studies provide a huge body of knowledge, which can now be applied in the development of treatments against CSCs.

This study says Lycopene has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell cycle progression in various cancer cells.

A combination of vitamin E, selenium, and lycopene has been shown to dramatically inhibit prostate cancer development and to increase disease-free survival. Lycopene has also been shown to suppress the growth of lung cancer cells, according to this study

This article says an epidemiological study in elderly Americans indicated that high tomato intake was associated with a 50% reduction in mortality from cancers at all sites,

Suppresses the generation of breast cancer stem cells according to this study, while this study says it inhibits the proliferation of melanoma cells.

Food sources: Black Pepper
The treatment of colon cancer cells with piperine has been shown to reduce the ability of the cells to form non-adherent spheres and colonies, suggesting the inhibiting effect of piperine on cancer stem cells, says this study

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Mainly high doses used for cancer – oral or intravenous.
Food Sources: small amounts in oranges, orange juice, red pepper, tomatoes and tomato juice, citrus fruits

Data in this study suggest that high-dose Vitamin C selectively induces DNA damage on cancer stem cells.
This study revealed that Vitamin C treatment dramatically reduced the self-renewal ability, and percentages of Cancer Stem Cells in Liver cancer.
This study found that Vitamin C was 10 times more potent than anticancer drug 2-DG for the targeting of Cancer Stem Cells.
This study says Vitamin D and its analogs have inhibitory effects on cancer stem cell signaling in various types of human cancer cells.
See Vitamin C

Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C)
Food sources: vegetables such as cabbage, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, radishes, and broccoli
Also available as a Supplement
The authors of this research paper say previous studies have shown that I3C inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and prevent or delay the progression of cancer, through its ability to attack cancer stem cells

I3C has a widespread effect on multiple cancer cells, such as breast cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancers, according to this study. This demonstrates the I3C plays a significant role in either the cell cycle arrest or apoptosis of various cancers.
See Indole-3-Carbinol

Food sources: Ginger
This study says growth arrest and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells treated with 6-gingerol, was shown to occur.

Falcarinol and falcarindiol
Polyacetylenes derived from carrot and parsley
The authors of this study say they provide several pieces of evidence suggesting that falcarindiol has the anticancer role by targeting glioblastoma cells, as well as glioblastoma stem-like cells. Falcarindiol was shown to selectively kill colorectal cancer cells and repress tumor growth, without affecting normal colon epithelial cells. The anticancer function of falcarindiol was further demonstrated with breast cancer cells in which falcarindiol contributed to autophagy-dependent tumor cell death.
This study says falcarindiol inhibits development of breast and other cancers.

Ursolic acid
Food sources: apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint, rosemary, lavender, oregano, thyme, hawthorn, prunes
Also available as a Supplement
Findings suggested that UA is involved in mechanism to affect the proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells and it is a potent anti-ovarian cancer agent, according to this study

Anthocyanins (Purple Potatoes)
Baked purple-fleshed potato suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in colon cancer stem cells, says this study. The study authors say their results provide the evidence that Purple Potato extract has the potential to target the self-renewal of colon cancer stem cells.

Food sources: parsley, thyme, chamomile and red pepper
These results indicate that the flavonoids, particularly apigenin and quercetin, can reduce theself-renewal capacity of Glioblastoma stem-like cells. These findings underscore the therapeutic potential of the flavonoids to suppress Glioblastoma metastasis by regulating the migration and invasion of Glioblastoma Stem Cells, according to this study

Supplements that kill Cancer Stem Cells

CAPE (antioxidant extracted from honeybee hive – bee glue)
The authors of this study showed that CAPE inhibits the growth of breast cancer stem cells and potentially makes them more susceptible to chemotherapeutic agents when used in combination.

The authors of this study say their results strongly suggest that CAPE could be a powerful inhibitor of cancer stem cell growth and functions that are responsible for CSC-mediated recurrence of breast cancer and increased patient mortality.

This scientific review says that recent studies indicate that CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester ) treatment can effectively suppress the proliferation, survival, and metastasis of oral cancer cells… CAPE treatment will be useful for treatment of advanced oral cancer patients.

Withaferin A (Ashwagandha)
The herbal supplement Withaferin A significantly inhibited the tumorigenic potential of isolated cancer stem cells in vitro and significantly reduced its expression in tumors collected from mice, according to this Study

This study says Withaferin A induces cell death (apoptosis/necrosis) in multiple types of tumor cells.

Silibinin (Milk Thistle seed extract)
Recent preclinical studies have shown strong efficacy of silibinin to target cancer cell’s migratory and invasive characteristics as well as their ability to metastasize to distant organs, according to this study

The authors of this study say their data provide sufficient evidence that silibinin has dual efficacy against both bulk colorectal cancer cells cells and colon cancer stem cells.

is an alkaloid isolated from the roots and bark of Berberis plants and is available as a supplement.
This study showed the anti-cancer stem cell effect of berberine on oral cancer.
See Berberine

Feverfew and Green chirayta (Andrographis Paniculata)
This review says “the compound parthenolide, which is derived from the medicinal plant feverfew, has recently been shown to preferentially induce acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) stem cells to undergo apoptosis. Importantly, parthenolide had no discernable effect on normal blood cells.”

This study shows that feverfew plant extract and Green chirayta plant extract are highly effective anti-myeloma cancer stem cell agents, with Green chirayta plant extract displaying increased selectivity for myeloma cancer stem cells compared to feverfew plant extract. The data presented here constitute the first report of natural products with anti-Cancer Stem Cell activity in myeloma cancer

Drugs that kill Cancer Stem Cells
This study found that antibiotics, such as Doxycycline, could eradicate Cancer Stem Cells in multiple cancer types. These include: DCIS, breast (ER(+) and ER(-)), ovarian, prostate, lung, and pancreatic carcinomas, as well as melanoma and glioblastoma. Doxycycline was also effective in halting the propagation of primary cultures of CSCs from breast cancer patients, with advanced metastatic disease. The study authors propose the combined use of Doxycycline and Vitamin C as a new strategy for eradicating CSCs.

Doxycycline and Vitamin C
This study found that a combination of Doxycycline (an anti-biotic) and Vitamin C could eradicate Cancer Stem Cells in a number of cancer types. The authors state:
“it became apparent that tetracycline antibiotics, such as Doxycycline, could be re-purposed to eradicate CSCs, in multiple cancer types. These eight distinct cancer types included: DCIS, breast (ER(+) and ER(−)), ovarian, prostate, lung, and pancreatic carcinomas, as well as melanoma and glioblastoma.
Doxycycline was also effective in halting the propagation of primary cultures of CSCs from breast cancer patients, with advanced metastatic disease …”

Metformin (type 2 diabetes drug)
In human cancer cells of different origin, metformin has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest, growth inhibition and apoptosis…As demonstrated in a number of recent studies,
metformin is able to selectively target Cancer Stem Cells in different types of human cancers, including breast , pancreatic and thyroid cancer. In particular, metformin has been shown to selectively kill Cancer Stem Cells in four genetically different types of human breast cancer, according to this study
See Metformin

Stiripentol – an epilepsy treatment drug
This study found that stiripentol was between 50 to 100 times more potent than anticancer drug 2-DG in targeting Cancer Stem Cells.

Salinomycin (anti-biotic drug)
Salinomycin has been shown to inhibit oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria that may contribute to the elimination of Cancer Stem Cells by salinomycin, says this study

This study says salinomycin reduces the proportion of Cancer Stem Cells by more than 100-fold relative to paclitaxel, a commonly used breast cancer chemotherapeutic drug…salinomycin preferentially targets the viability of CSCs within breast cancer cell populations.

Niclosamide (tapeworm treatment)
This study concluded:
…we have provided evidence that the antihelminthic niclosamide inhibits cancer stemness, extracellular matrix remodeling, and metastasis [in oral squamous cell carcinoma]

Reduces Metastasis

Avemar, a derivative of fermented wheat germ extract, is a non-toxic and natural compound that is used as a dietary supplement by cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Avemar has numerous biological activities, and several recent studies have reported that it may also have metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects.

This study says the oral use of Avemar in patients with advanced colorectal cancer or high-risk melanoma inhibits the formation of tumor metastases and prolongs survival following chemotherapy and surgery.
See Avemar.

A 2013 study published in PubMed concludes “data from randomised clinical studies have shown that aspirin prevents the development of malignancy, and it also appears to decrease the development and spread of metastases.
See Aspirin

Taurolidine (antimicrobial agent)

This study concluded: The application of taurolidine tends to prevent the development of lung metastases. Furthermore, taurolidine seems to reduce established lung metastases in this in vivo model. Taurolidine may offer additional therapeutic options in patients with colon adenocarcinoma.
See Taurolidine

Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda)
This study found that oral bicarbonate therapy significantly reduced the incidence of metastases in experimental models of breast and prostate cancer… Notably, bicarbonate did not affect the systemic pH or the growth rate of primary tumors but had significant effects on the formation of spontaneous metastases.

Chloroquine, a drug currently used to treat malaria, may be useful in treating patients with metastatic cancers according to a new study by University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center.

Dipyridamole (an anticoagulant)
The experimental evidence strongly suggests that anticoagulants or agents interfering with platelet aggregation can prevent metastases. Despite uncertainties about the exact nature of the interaction between anticoagulants and cancer cells, anticoagulants may inhibit the adherence (or trapping) of cancer cells to capillary walls, so that cancer cells remain in systemic circulation and thus are exposed for a prolonged period to a hostile environment with the potential to eliminate cancer cells, according to this study.

This study says: Propranolol was also shown to have an effect on metastasis to the brain – the other major site of interest in breast cancer. Choy et al assessed retrospective data that showed that for stage II breast cancer patients beta-blocker usage was associated with a significantly reduced risk of post-operative recurrence or distant metastasis…The recent studies outlined in this paper add to the weight of evidence to support the use of propranolol as an anti-metastatic agent in breast cancer… There remains a clear potential for propranolol to be useful in a range of other cancers, including angiosarcoma, melanoma, and retinal haemangioblastomas in von Hippel-Lindau disease.

This study concluded…we observed reduced cancer-specific mortality among prostate cancer patients taking beta-blockers. However, we did not observe any effect of beta-blocker use on all-cause mortality in this meta-analysis. Taken together with studies in other cancer types and in preclinical models, our findings indicate a beneficial effect of beta-blockers on survival in patients with prostate cancer. Therefore, beta-blockers may be considered a promising therapeutic approach for adjuvant therapy in prostate cancer.

MSKE (Muscadine grape skin extract)

A nutritional supplement containing an extract of the skin of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia), with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. The skin extract of the muscadine grape contains numerous phytochemicals … muscadine grape skin extract (MSKE) appears to inhibit PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling, eventually leading to apoptosis and a reduction in tumor cell proliferation.
National Cancer Institute

This study says:
Here we provide the first evidence that dietary agents, namely, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, or a mixture of polyphenols from green tea (polyphenon E) or grapevine extract (vineatrol), impede prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo…
See more on MSKE page

Niclosamide (tapeworm treatment)
This study concluded:
…we have provided evidence that the antihelminthic niclosamide inhibits cancer stemness, extracellular matrix remodeling, and metastasis [in oral squamous cell carcinoma]

Polysaccharide-K (PSK) or krestin, from the mushroom T. versicolor, is an approved mushroom product used for cancer treatment in Japan. PSK is a proprietary formulation from the Kureha Corporation. PSK has been used as an adjunctive cancer treatment in thousands of patients since the mid-1970s. The safety record for PSK is well established in Japan.
National Cancer Institute

This Review of lung cancer studies says:
Fifteen of 17 preclinical studies supported anticancer effects for PSK through immunomodulation and potentiation of immune surveillance, as well as through direct tumor inhibiting actions in vivo that resulted in reduced tumor growth and anti-metastatic effects. Nonrandomized controlled trials showed improvement of various survival measures including median survival and 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival. Randomized controlled trials showed benefits on a range of endpoints, including immune parameters and hematological function, performance status and body weight, tumor-related symptoms such as fatigue and anorexia, as well as survival.
See more on PSK page.

Honokiol is a lignin isolated from the bark, seed cones, and leaves of the trees of various Magnolia species. Honokiol, along with other active molecules in magnolia, such as magnolol and obovatol, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries.

This Review concluded:
For centuries, researchers have been searching for strategies to control cancer progression through different approaches. Honokiol is a potential natural compound that exerts multiple effects on different cellular processes in various cancer models. Honokiol has been shown to regulate cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, as well as the inhibition of metastasis and angiogenesis through various signalling pathways.

See Honokiol page for more details

Papaya black seeds
Papaya is a soft tropical fruit with a yellowish-orange color. This species of fruit — which belongs to the Caricaceae family — is round and plump and comes in larger and smaller sizes.

Studies / Reviews
Carica papaya is an important and promising natural medicinal plant which could be utilized in several pharmaceutical and medical applications because of its effectiveness, availability and safety… Papaya promotes immune system. Papaya is potent cancer fighter that is highly effective against hormone related to cancer as well as other cancer. Papaya can stop the growth of cancer cell, halt metastasis and normalize cell cycle, says this Review

This study concluded:
The black seeds from papaya may have a potential to reduce growth of prostate cells; however, consumption of white seeds should be avoided as they may stimulate pre-existing prostate cancer.

Bisphosphonates can reduce the risk of metastases to the bones in cancer patients.

This article in The Lancet talked about a meta-analysis of randomised trials of bisphosphonates involving 18,766 women over a 20 year period. In postmenopausal women, the addition of bisphosphonates resulted in highly significant reductions for bone recurrence (6·6% vs 8·8%) and for breast cancer mortality (14·7% vs 18·0%) at 10 years. This benefit was independent of the type of bisphosphonate, the schedule of bisphosphonate administration, the oestrogen receptor status of the primary tumour, the presence of axillary lymph node involvement, and the use of concomitant systemic chemotherapy. There was no reduction in the incidence of contralateral breast cancer or in the risk of metastasis to non‐osseous [consisting of or turned into bone] sites. This landmark report on breast cancer treatment should lead to widespread adoption of bisphosphonates as a standard of care for the adjuvant therapy of early-stage breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that are used to treat abnormally high blood calcium (hypercalcemia) and bone pain caused by some types of cancer. In breast cancer, bisphosphonates are used primarily to reduce bone loss (osteoporosis) and the risk of fracture among postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive disease who receive aromatase inhibitors.

The results of this study suggest that Naringenin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in citrus fruits, has a potentially useful inhibitory effect on tumor growth.
This study says that naringenin inhibits bladder cancer cell migration and, thus, may have the potential to suppress bladder cancer metastasis.

Inhibits Tumor Growth


The results of this study suggest that Naringenin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in citrus fruits, has a potentially useful inhibitory effect on tumor growth.

Available in supplement form.

This study says Hesperidin has been proven to be an effective medicine possessing many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory…and inhibition of tumor promoters. Hesperidin has the potential to be developed as a chemotherapeutic or adjuvant agent for human cervical cancer.
Hesperidin is a plant chemical that is found primarily in citrus fruits such as oranges, grapefruits, and lemons.


Artemisinin is a chemical compound extracted from the wormwood plant, Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin is an effective anticancer compound that produces few side effects.

This study revealed experimental evidences suggesting that artemisinin compounds may be a therapeutic alternative in highly aggressive cancers with rapid dissemination, without developing drug resistance.
See Artemesinin


This study found kombucha induced cell growth inhibition by 20% in laboratory tests.

Oxygenation therapies

Dr. Otto Warburg, Nobel prize-winning cancer researcher, discovered that cancer cells cannot metabolize oxygen properly. Flooding cells with oxygen may retard the growth of cancer cells or even help to return them to normal.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

Oxygen that is given at a pressure that is higher than the pressure of the atmosphere at sea level. In medicine, breathing hyperbaric oxygen increases the amount of oxygen in the body…It is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Hyperbaric oxygen may increase the amount of oxygen in cancer cells, which may make them easier to kill with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. (Source: National Cancer Institute)
See Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

Ozone Therapy

This study found that in patients with delayed healing following tumor surgery, the local application of ozone, in conjunction with other standard treatments, could accelerate the healing process …
See Ozone Therapy


Here are five case studies demonstrating the efficacy of Salvestrol;
Case #1 Lung cancer
Case #2 Melanoma
Case #3 Prostate cancer
Case #4Breast cancer
Case #5 Bladder cancer

See Salvestrols


The composite Salicinium molecule will only affect anaerobic (cancer) cells destroying the enzymatic “cloak” which allows them to hide from the immune system.

Circulating tumor cells are at the forefront of an ongoing or escalading malignant process.  Salicinium affects these cells first, therefore, contributing to halting the spread of malignancy.

See Salicinium

Alcohol and Cancer Stem Cells
Available evidence indicates that alcohol increases cancer stem Cell population, and therefore may promote aggressiveness, recurrence, and therapy resistance of cancers – study

Main studies
The use of natural products to target cancer stem cells

Natural Products That Target Cancer Stem Cells

Implications of Cancer Stem Cell Theory for Cancer Chemoprevention by Natural Dietary Compounds

Phytochemicals as Innovative Therapeutic Tools against Cancer Stem Cells

The primary reason why conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy have failed to produce any significant improvements in cancer survival rates is because cancer stem cells are resistant to these interventions. In fact, chemotherapy and especially radiation are both capable of increasing the number and virulence of these cells in a tumor, while at the same time having the well-known side effect of further damaging the patient’s immune system.
Sayer Ji, GreenmedInfo

1. Some cancer therapies can conflict with others. Do not start ANY therapy without consulting your doctor to ensure it’s safe and beneficial to do so.
2. Just because any given therapy worked for someone else does not necessarily mean it will work for you.
3. Although there are many viable cancer treatments, there isn’t a “best” treatment for a certain type or stage of cancer.

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