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Prevention and Early Home Treatment

Early Treatment for Covid-19 can save your life

We don’t need to suffer helplessly with covid-19 symptoms that may worsen and require hospitalisation. Frontline doctors successfully treating covid patients advise that prevention or early home treatment can reduce the severity of the illness and thereby save our lives, especially if we are deficient in certain vitamins or minerals or immunocompromised (see notes for cancer patients).

Go to the following section:
Early Home Treatments
Notes for cancer patients
Betadine: Oral and Nasal Rinse instructions
Clinical Evidence


Lowers Infection Risk
Over the counter options backed by research and recommended by frontline doctors

Vitamin D: 5,000 IU daily
Vitamin C: 1,000mg twice daily *
Elemental Zinc: 25mg daily **
Quercetin: 500mg daily ***
Selenium: 100 mcg daily
Magnesium: 400 mg daily
Betadine (Povidone Iodine) (nasal spray): twice daily ****
Plant-based Diet:
Study: 2,884 front-line healthcare workers following a plant-based diet had 73% lower odds of moderate-to-severe covid-19

See also:
Front Line Covid-19 CriticaL Care Alliance:
Prevention & Treatment Protocols For Covid-19

Dr Zelenko Protocol – 99% survival of high risk Covid-19 patients:

Zelenko Protocols against Covid-19

World Council for Health
Early Covid-19 treatment guidelines

Dr Peter McCullough
Early Treatment Protocol 2022


Early Home Treatment
Over the counter options backed by research and used by frontline doctors

Vitamin D: 20,000 IU daily
reduces illness severity and deaths

Quercetin: 500mg twice daily ***
reduces illness severity and deaths

Elemental Zinc: 50mg daily **
lowers viral replication, reduces lung damage

Magnesium: 360mg twice daily
protects organs and tissues from covid damage

Selenium: 200mcg twice daily
strengthens immune system, lowers viral infection

Vitamin C: 1,000mg hourly *
helps prevent small clots, reduces cytokine storm

Nigella Sativa: 500 mg twice daily for 10 days
reduces illness severity and deaths

Betadine (Povidone Iodine) (nasal spray): Every 4 hrs****
reduces illness severity and deaths

Pepcid (Famotidine): 80mg once a day*****
reduces illness severity and deaths

Ask your doctor about Aspirin to prevent blood clots

Purchase a Pulse Oximeter – to help monitor blood oxygen levels
Cheap and widely available.

Download Prevention and Treatment options

* take vitamin C until the onset of diarrhoea …then limit intake for a period

** 110mg of zinc sulphate contains 25mg of Elemental Zinc

*** Quercetin Phytosome is absorbed 20 times better than other types of Quercetin.

**** Betadine Warnings/Precautions:
Do not use it if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, have hyperthyroidism, are being treated for thyroid cancer with irradiated iodine, or hypersensitive to iodine.
Do not take if you currently have or have ever had, a thyroid problem, including swelling (nodular colloid goitre, endemic goitre or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis), as there may be a risk of developing hyperthyroidism from the administration of large amounts of iodine.

***** Pepcid (Famotidine)
Warnings/Precautions: Renal disease. Pregnancy. Nursing mothers.

Always consult your doctor before starting any new regimen.

Betadine: Oral and Nasal Rinse instructions

When a person is infected with Covid-19, the virus lives in their mouth and nose and may gather strength for a couple of days before invading the body. The use of a diluted Povidone-Iodine solution in your mouth and nose is a simple way to kill the virus where it lives. This can also be used as a preventative measure by people who have been exposed to Covid-19 but are not yet sick. (Source MedHelp)

Download Prevention and Treatment options

Notes for cancer patients

Using supplemental antioxidants during chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Many oncologists advise against taking supplemental antioxidants [vitamin D etc] during chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Many integrative practitioners, on the other hand, believe that antioxidants taken during treatment not only alleviate some of the treatment side effects but also enhance the efficacy of the treatment.

This 2018 Study review of 18,208 patients found antioxidant supplementation during chemotherapy promises higher therapeutic efficiency and increased survival times in patients.

This Study says the preponderance of laboratory and clinical evidence leads to the conclusion that dietary antioxidants do not interfere with the beneficial effects of radiotherapy. It is possible that the judicious use of antioxidants may in fact enhance therapeutic results.

Magnesium and cancer

This 2022 study found: Low serum magnesium levels are associated with worse outcomes in cancer immunotherapy

This is of huge importance to people with cancer, or others with chronic illnesses, or those trying to prevent or fight off Covid-19. Researchers found that the level of magnesium in the blood is crucial in the immune system’s ability to tackle pathogens, infection or cancer cells, says Chris Woollams in this CANCERactive article

Betadine (povidone iodine – PVP-1) and cancer

This study says that taken together, their data suggest that PVP-I exhibits a strong inhibitory effect on tumor growth in colon cancer (CT26) and hepatoma (H22) [liver cancer] both in human and laboratory studies, suggesting a new potential therapeutic approach after tumor excision surgery to colon cancer and hepatoma.

Do not use Betadine if you are are being treated for thyroid cancer with irradiated iodine, or hypersensitive to iodine.

Pepcid (famotidone)

Taking Erlotinib (anti-cancer drug)?
If you take a stomach medicine for heartburn or ulcers (such as cimetidine, famotidine Pepcid®, Tagamet®), take the heartburn medicine at least 10 hours before or 2 hours after you take this medicine. (Source: Mayo Clinic)

Pepcid (Famotidine) and Breast Cancer
This pilot Study suggests that famotidine increases tumor infiltrating lymphocyte concentration in breast cancer…Various studies have shown that the presence of lymphocytic infiltration correlates with improved survival rates in breast cancer. Thus enhancement of lymphocytic infiltration may lead to improved survival for these patients.


Plant-based diet

Summary of a 2021 Study published in the British Medical Journal.

  • In 2884 front-line healthcare workers from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, USA), individuals who reported following plant-based diets and plant-based diets or pescatarian diets that were higher in vegetables, legumes and nuts, and lower in poultry and red and processed meats, had 73% and 59% lower odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19, respectively.
  • Plant-based diets or pescatarian diets are healthy dietary patterns, which may be considered for protection against severe COVID-19.

This 2021 Study published in the British Medical Journal.
We used data from 592 571 participants of the smartphone-based COVID-19 Symptom Study.
In conclusion, our data provide evidence that a healthy diet was associated with lower risk of COVID-19 and severe COVID-19 even after accounting for other healthy behaviours, social determinants of health and virus transmission measures.

Vitamin D: Reduces risk of infection and/or severity of illness

The largest observational study to date, looked at data for 191,779 American patients who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 between March and June 2020 and had had their vitamin D tested sometime in the preceding 12 months.
Of those with deficient levels of vitamin D (below 20 ng/ml), 12.5% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2,
Of those with adequate levels of vitamin D (between 30 and 34 ng/ml), 8.1% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2
and of those with optimal levels of vitamin D (55 ng/ml or higher), 5.9% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2

Quercetin: Reduces risk of infection and/or severity of illness

A Review Article published in Frontiers in Immunology says Quercetin displays a broad range of antiviral properties which can interfere with virus entry and virus replication – and that these therapeutic effects can be augmented by the co-administration of vitamin C. Furthermore, due to their lack of severe side effects, the authors recommend the combined administration of these two compounds for both the prevention and the early treatment of respiratory tract infections, especially including COVID-19 patients.

A study (Di Pierro et al 2021) investigated the effects of 1000 mg of Quercetin Phytosome on 152 COVID-19 outpatients in treating the early symptoms and preventing the severe outcomes of the disease. (quercetin has a very low rate of oral absorption, but Quercetin in a delivery-food grade system with sunflower phospholipids (Quercetin Phytosome, QP) increases its oral absorption up to 20-fold). Results: The results revealed a reduction in frequency and length of hospitalization, in need of non-invasive oxygen therapy, in progression to intensive care units and in number of deaths. The results also confirmed the very high safety profile of quercetin and suggested possible anti-fatigue and pro-appetite properties.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): Reduces risk of infection and/or severity of illness

A study of 67 critically ill Covid-19 patients published in Nutrition Journal found that up to 82% had low Vitamin C values.

A study published in Antioxidants says: Low ascorbic acid levels are frequent in COVID-19 critically ill patients…This fact, along with all the findings presented before, suggest that vitamin C supplementation would be advisable to restore regular levels, in order to both prevent and treat these condition, as adequate status cannot be attainable through dietary sources.

A study published in the journal Nutrition says: COVID-19 pneumonia and its progression to respiratory failure appear to be driven by an immune hyperreaction in which IL-6 and ET-1 play an important role. Vitamin C can reduce these (and other) inflammatory mediators in various inflammatory conditions…Considering the weight of the evidence and because vitamin C is cheap and safe, an oral low dose (1–2 g/d) may be useful prophylactically, and in cases of severe COVID-19, a (very) high-dose regimen may be beneficial.

Elemental Zinc: Reduces risk of infection and/or severity of illness

A study published in Advances in Integrative Medicine says: Currently, indirect evidence suggests zinc may potentially reduce the risk, duration and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections, particularly for populations at risk of zinc deficiency including people with chronic disease co-morbidities and older adults.

A study published in the Journal of Inflammation Research says: Consequently, this study suggests that zinc supplementation as an adjunct to other medications could provide dual advantages in preventing and managing COVID-19.

A study of 164Covid-19 patients published in Critical Care concluded: The use of zinc sulfate as an additional treatment in critically ill COVID-19 patients may improve survival. Furthermore, zinc supplementation may have a protective effect on the kidneys.

A study published in the British Medical Journal concluded: In adult populations unlikely to be zinc deficient, there was some evidence suggesting zinc might prevent RTIs (respiratory tract infections) symptoms and shorten duration.
A study published in Frontiers in Immunology says: Zinc supplementation improves the mucociliary clearance, strengthens the integrity of the epithelium, decreases viral replication, preserves antiviral immunity, attenuates the risk of hyper-inflammation, supports anti-oxidative effects and thus reduces lung damage and minimized secondary infections.

Nigella Sativa: Reduces risk of infection and/or severity of illness

Nigella Sativa Oil (NSO) also known as Black Seeds
This 2021 study concluded: Oral NSO dosage supplementation at 500 mg twice daily for 10 days in a sample of adult patients with mild symptoms of COVID-119 was associated with a higher percentage of recovery than usual care alone at day 14 of the illness. Additionally, faster recovery from COVID-19 symptoms and a lower hospitalization rate were observed with a low adverse effect profile.

Black Seeds (BS) (Nigella Sativa)
This 2021 study says: In our study, (419) participants were divided into two groups.The studied participants included patients which received standard care treatment as a control group, while the (BS) group were patients received black seeds at a 40 mg/kg dose orally, once daily for 14 days plus standard protocol of treatment. The evidence of BS efficacy was obvious in the severity and outcome of infection with covid-19. A significantly higher severity of infection among control group 44 (17.0%) than the black seed group were noticed; the control group also showed 14 deaths (5.4%), while there were no deaths in black seeds group (0.0%). Thus, we can conclude that black seed is very effective in reducing the severity of covid-19 and preventing death in infected patients.

Aspirin: Reduces severity of illness and death

Seven studies with a total of 34,415 patients were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The use of aspirin was associated with a reduced risk of mortality…

This 2022 Review says: Observational studies have demonstrated the potential efficacy of adjunctive therapy of low-dose aspirin (81–100 mg per day) in patients with COVID-19. In an earlier small observational cohort study of adult patients with COVID-19 by Chow et al., aspirin use (n = 98) at least seven days before hospitalization or within 24 h of hospitalization compared to no aspirin use (n = 314) was significantly associated with lower intensive care unit (ICU) admission, risk of mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality… In another recent observational study, among 730 patients on antiplatelet therapy, 645 patients were treated with either oral or intravenous aspirin during hospitalization. Compared to 6986 patients on no antiplatelet therapy, patients on antiplatelet therapy had lower in-hospital mortality and a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation. The mortality benefit was also observed in ICU patients and patients with a history of cancer

Selenium: Reduces risk of infection and/or severity of illness

This April 2021 Review Study published in Current Nutrition Reports says: Selenium, an essential trace element, strengthens the immune system, lowers viral infection and reduces oxidative stress and inflammation. Because of those functions, selenium is an essential nutrient in COVID-19 disease. Furthermore, selenium is essential for critically ill patients, and its deficiency is often associated with severity and mortality rate of critical illness. Moreover, a link between selenium deficiency and severity of COVID-19 disease suggests the importance of this nutrient in COVID-19. The results of selenium supplementation in critically ill patients are promising; therefore, selenium supplementation may be an additional strategy to manage COVID-19 disease.

Magnesium: Reduces risk of infection and/or severity of illness

This 2021 Study Review published in Missouri Medicine says: Magnesium and vitamin D each have the possibility of affecting the immune system and consequently the cytokine storm and coagulation cascade in COVID-19 infections…Indeed, magnesium is important for activating vitamin D and has a protective role against oxidative stress. Magnesium deficiency increases endothelial cell susceptibility to oxidative stress, promotes endothelial dysfunction, reduces fibrinolysis and increases coagulation. Furthermore, magnesium deficient animals and humans have depressed immune responses, which, when supplemented with magnesium, a partial or near full reversal of the immunodeficiency occurs. Moreover, intracellular free magnesium levels in natural killer cells and CD8 killer T cells regulates their cytotoxicity. Considering that magnesium and vitamin D are important for immune function and cellular resilience, a deficiency in either may contribute to cytokine storm in the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Conclusion Magnesium and vitamin D supplementation should be considered in the general population with special consideration during the COVID-19 pandemic.

This 2020 study published in European Journal of Pharmacology says:  Magnesium supplementation protects organs and tissues from damage through multiple mechanisms including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, immune-regulation. It is worth noting that magnesium sulfate can be a drug of choice in supportive treatment of COVID-19 especially critically ill patients with promising crucial beneficial medical effects (Bani et al., 2020). The evidence from this review preliminarily supports the expected efficacy of magnesium supplementation in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 patients, especially pregnant women, as well as subjects with hypertension and diabetes. Therefore, magnesium supplementation is expected to play an active role in clinical practice in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

This 2021 study concludes: Monitoring and restoring magnesium homeostasis through an appropriate nutritional regimen or eventually by supplementation should therefore be taken in account for the general population, in particular during the current pandemic, as magnesium might contribute to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, to reduce severity of COVID-19 symptoms and to facilitate the recovery after the acute phase.

Famotidine: Reduces risk of infection and/or severity of illness

This 2020 study of 878 covid- 19 patients published in The American Journal of Gastroenterology says: In summary, we found that famotidine is associated with improved clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, including lower in-hospital mortality, a lower composite of death and/or intubation, and lower levels of serum markers for serious disease. Additional studies are warranted to fully evaluate the impact of famotidine in the COVID-19 population.

This 2020 study published in Gastroenterology says:
In sum, in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and not initially intubated, famotidine use was

associated with a 2-fold reduction in clinical deterioration leading to intubation or death. These findings are observational and should not be interpreted to mean that famotidine has a protective effect against COVID-19

Betadine: Reduces risk of infection and/or severity of illness

Study: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery
SARS- CoV-2 or novel coronavirus enters in human body through nose and mouth, stays there for a while. Then binds with ACE2 receptor, enters inside cell, multiply there and manifests. Again, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone or Povidone Iodine (PVP-I) is a strong microbicidal agent having 99.99% virucidal efficacy in its only 0.23% concentration, irrespective of all known viruses, even in SARS- CoV-2 (in vitro). An oro-nasal spray is designed to apply the PVP-I in nose and oral cavity to gain a protective layer or coating over nasal and oral mucosa, so that SARS-CoV-2 can’t bind with the ACE-2 receptor and prevent their entry inside. So, it will be effective for prevention of COVID-19. Moreover, as PVP-I has the ability for destruction of SARS-CoV-2, transmission of SARS- CoV-2 from patient will be reduced also. Thus PVP-I oro-nasal spray can act as an effective shield for COVID-19 protection for healthcare workers, for all.

This 2020 study review published in Journal of Otorhinolaryngology says:
PVP-I [ Povidone-iodine ] has been used for more than 60 years as a topical antiseptic agent. Of note, PVP-I is viricidal against a wide range of viruses, including coronaviruses. Numerous reports confirm that low doses of PVP-I applied for short periods of time are extremely effective at reducing viral load. The safety profile of topical application of PVP-I to oral mucosa has been demonstrated. As health care settings develop new protocols around SARS-CoV-2 prophylaxis, the application of PVP-I solutions to the upper aerodigestive tract appears to be a low-cost and simple intervention for reducing viral burden from relevant mucosal surfaces.

This 2021 Research Letter published in JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surgery says:
Nasopharyngeal decolonization may reduce the carriage of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in adults with mild to moderate COVID-19.

This 2021 study (laboratory) published in Ear, Nose & Throat Journal concluded:
Nasal and oral PVP-I antiseptic solutions are effective at inactivating the SARS-CoV-2 at a variety of concentrations after 60-second exposure times. The formulations tested [1% to 5%] may help to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 if used for nasal decontamination, oral decontamination, or surface decontamination in known or suspected cases of COVID-19.

This 2020 Review published in Ear, Nose & Throat Journal says: Povidone-iodine is effective against SARS-CoV and MERS at 0.23% after 15 seconds of exposure in vitro. Based on homology demonstrated between SARS-CoV and SARS-
CoV-2, it is likely that PVP-I is effective in safely eradicating SARS-CoV-2 in the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral cavity, and oropharynx. However, there are no existing data evaluating the efficacy of PVP-I on SARS-CoV-2.

This 2020 study published in Journal of Prosthodontics concluded: PVP-I oral antiseptic preparations rapidly inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus in vitro [laboratory]. The viricidal activity of PVP-I oral antiseptic solution was present at the lowest concentration of 0.5 %, and at the lowest contact time of 15 seconds. This important finding warrants the use of preprocedural oral rinsing with 0.5% PVP-I for patients and health care providers.

This 2021 clinical trial published in Bioresearch Communications says:
Methodology: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, out of 1113 patients 606 patients were enrolled and divided in 2 groups by randomization after taken consents. In Gr-A, 303 patients underwent mouthwash/gargle, nasal drops and eye drops with 1% povidone iodine 4 hourly for 4 weeks as well as symptomatic treatment according to need. In Gr-B 303 patients were advised mouthwash/gargle, nasal cavity and eye wash with lukewarm water 4 hourly for 4 weeks and symptomatic treatment according to need. RT-PCR test done every 3rd, 5th and 7th day and Thyroid hormone level (TSH,T3, T4, FT4) at 4th week for follow up.
Results: The group of patients used 1% PVP-I have shown tremendously reduced mortality, morbidity and hospital as well as financial burden in this covid situation.
Conclusion: Administration of1% PVP-I as mouthwash/gargle, nasal or eye drop is simple, rapid and cost effective in reduction of mortality and morbidity by COVID-19.

The Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS) released a statement on October 13, 2021 concerning the potential benefit and safe usage of this modality.
The AAPS statement notes that seven studies have shown efficacy in early treatment or pre-exposure prophylaxis. For example, Bidra et al. showed rapid inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 when povidone-iodine (PVP-I) was used as an oral rinse. Frank et al. showed that dilute PVP-I can be safely used as an oral rinse or nasal spray. Guenezan et al. showed reduced viral load in a randomized controlled trial. Choudhury et al. used Betadine as acute therapy for incipient COVID-19 in a randomized controlled trial that showed significantly lower death and hospitalization rate.

All the studies used dilute Betadine as an oral rinse, gargle, or nasal spray. AAPS suggested a 20-to-1 dilution (2 tsp of Betadine to 6 oz. of distilled or purified water) and provides a link to detailed videotaped instructions.

AAPS cautions that while one should never drink substances intended to be used on surfaces or skin, and one should spit out the oral rinse or gargle, an adult would need to drink several quarts of undiluted Betadine to do serious immediate harm. Thus, AAPS concludes that when used as directed, Betadine is safe and potentially of help.

The Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS) is a national organization representing physicians in all specialties since 1943.

More evidence for vitamins C and D, zinc, magnesium, and selenium

This June 2021 study published in Frontiers in Nutrition says: Among micronutrients important for adequate immune function, vitamin D, zinc and selenium are of particular importance for coping with viral, respiratory infections, such as COVID-19. Adequate status of these micronutrients is not only important for immune function and viral clearance, but also might mitigate life-threatening complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as thrombosis and uncontrolled inflammation which leads to cytokine storm.

This Review of 85 studies (published Feb. 2022) in Clinical Nutrition ESPEN says deficiencies of Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Zinc, and Selenium can be considered a nutritional risk factor for patients with COVID-19.

The study authors say micronutrients such as vitamin C, D, zinc, and selenium play roles in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiviral, and immuno-modulatory functions and are useful in both innate and adaptive immunity.

To achieve a healthy immunity it is imperative that individuals embrace a healthy lifestyle, which includes a diversified, balanced, and healthy diet, with sufficient amounts of essential nutrients.

Vitamin C
Supplementation with vitamin C appears to have preventive and treatment capabilities against respiratory and systemic infections, improving several functions of immunological cells. including prevention of small clot formation and capillary plugging, reduction of cytokine storm, reduction of oxidative stress and has been suggested as having a role in antiviral cytokine interferon levels.

Vitamin D
One study of 8297 participants who had records of COVID-19 test results from 22 assessment centers reported that habitual use of vitamin D supplements was associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 infection, independent of lifestyle or prevalent chronic diseases.

Patients treated in Respiratory Intermediate Care Unit with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and severe vitamin D deficiency, after 10 days of hospitalization, had a 50% probability of death.

Some studies demonstrated a correlation between serum zinc levels and COVID-19 outcome. Low serum zinc levels at admission were correlated with worse clinical presentation, longer time to reach stability, and a higher death rate of hospitalized patients. In critically ill patients with COVID-19, low serum zinc levels (<70 μg/dL) were extremely prevalent at admission to the ICU and were associated with a degree of organ failure manifested with severe ARDS [Acute respiratory distress syndrome]. In addition, severe patients showed lower serum zinc levels compared with non-severe patients.

Studies have already identified associations between selenium deficiency and increased illness and death from viral infections.

Selenium intervention studies have shown positive effects in terms of reducing the risk of totality, improving clinical parameters (e.g. transfer to ICU) and inflammation markers, increasing viral clearance and better survival during hospitalization in frail elderly individuals during COVID-19.

Collectively, the available studies support the belief that selenium may be of relevance in the infection with SARS-CoV-2 and disease course of COVID-19

This 2020 study published on the World Health Organisation website concludes:
A vitamin D / magnesium / vitamin B12 combination in older COVID-19 patients was associated with a significant reduction in the proportion of patients with clinical deterioration requiring oxygen support, intensive care support, or both.

[patients were administered 1000 IU/d oral vitamin D3, 150 mg/d oral magnesium, and 500 mcg/d oral vitamin B12 upon admission if they did not require oxygen therapy.]

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